Publications of 2017

Comparing sorghum and wheat whole grain breakfast cereals: sensorial acceptance and bioactive compound content.

Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Jaqueline Vieira Piovezana, Ceres Mattos Della Lúcia, Carlos Wanderlei Piller de Carvalho, Valéia Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Hércia Stampini Daurte Martino, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana

Food Chemistry, v. 221, p. 984-989
Impact Factor: 4,429

Abstract
The sensory acceptance and the content of bioactive compounds of whole-sorghum and whole-wheat breakfast cereals were compared. Sensory acceptance was assessed using the Food Action Rating Scale. 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins, flavones and flavanones were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection, and vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. The sorghum breakfast cereal had better sensory acceptance (70.6%) than wheat breakfast cereal (41.18%). Sorghum had higher 3-deoxyanthocyanidin content (100% higher), total phenolic compounds (98.2% higher) and antioxidant activity (87.9% higher) than wheat breakfast cereal. Flavones and flavanones were not detected in both breakfast cereals. Total vitamin E content was 78.6% higher in wheat than in sorghum breakfast cereal. Thus, consumption of whole sorghum breakfast cereal should be encouraged, since it had good sensory acceptance and is a source of bioactive compounds that can promote benefits to human health.

Advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo methods of iron and zinc bioavailability evaluation in the assessment of biofortification program effectiveness

Desirrê Morais Dias, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Elad Tako, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 2017, p.1-9.
Impact Factor: 6,077

Abstract
Biofortification aims to improve the micronutrient concentration of staple food crops through the best practices of breeding and modern biotechnology. However, increased zinc and iron concentrations in food crops may not always translate into proportional increases in absorbed zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Therefore, assessing iron and zinc bioavailability in biofortified crops is imperative to evaluate the efficacy of breeding programs. This review aimed to investigate the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo methods of iron and zinc bioavailability evaluation in the assessment of biofortification program effectiveness. In vitro, animal and isotopic human studies have shown high iron and zinc bioavailability in biofortified staple food crops. Human studies provide direct knowledge regarding the effectiveness of biofortification, however, human studies are time consuming and are more expensive than in vitro and animal studies. Moreover, in vitro studies may be a useful preliminary screening method to identify promising plant cultivars, however, these studies cannot provide data that are directly applicable to humans. None of these methods provides complete information regarding mineral bioavailability, thus, a combination of these methods should be the most appropriate strategy to investigate the effectiveness of zinc and iron biofortification programs.

Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins and colorectal cancer: what is behind the scenes?

Luis Fernando de Souza Moraes, Xiaufei San, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Mei-Jun Zhu

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 2017, p.1-13
Impact Factor: 6,077

Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cause of cancer death. Phytochemicals, especially anthocyanins/anthocyanidins (A/A), have gathered attention of the scientific community owing to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cancer-inhibitory properties. In this review, we discussed the possible mechanisms whereby A/A exhibit intestinal anticarcinogenic characteristics. Anthocyanins/anthocyanidins inhibit the pro-inflammatory NF-B pathway, attenuate Wnt signaling and suppress abnormal epithelial cell proliferation. In addition, A/A induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and downregulate Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Furthermore, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 also contributes to the anti-carcinogenic effects of A/A. Finally, downregulation of metalloproteinases (MMPs) by A/A inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis. In conclusion, A/A exert its anti-tumor effects against colorectal carcinogenesis via multiple mechanisms, providing insights into the use of A/A as a natural chemopreventive intervention on major colorectal carcinogenic.

Anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves of the Uba variety in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

Nathalia Medina Ramirez, Renata Lopes Toledo, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, José Humberto de Queiroz, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy (ONLINE), v.91, p. 938-945.
Impact Factor:

Abstract
Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, herbal teas are being investigated as adjuvant in chronic disease management. Studies have shown that mango leaf tea contain mangiferin, total phenolics and antioxidants, compounds with many functional properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves, Ubá variety (TML), in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). For this, adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): the control group (fed AIN-93 diet), obese group (fed a HFD) and treated group (fed a HFD and supplemented with TML for 8 weeks). We analysed biometric measures and serum biochemical parameters of metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, histomorphometry of visceral adipose tissue and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PPAR-g), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The consumption of TML (24.7 Æ 2.1 mL/day) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increasing total antioxidant capacity and interleukin-10 serum concentrations, reduced abdominal fat accumulation, upregulated PPAR-g and LPL and downregulated FAS expression. Our data suggest that TML has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and related diseases through regulating the expression of transcriptional factors and enzymes associated with adipogenesis.

Are body fat and uric acid associated with cardiovascular risk scores? Cross-sectional analysis in the PROCARDIO-UFV trial.

Juliane Soares Rodrigues, Alynne Paula de Almeida, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff

International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences, v.30, n.4, p.313 – 324.
Impact Factor:

Background: Risk scores are tools used to indicate the probability of occurrence of a certain cardiovascular event and to previously identify individuals at low, medium, and high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Objective: To establish the cardiovascular risk of users of a cardiovascular health attention program of a university, and assess its association with lifestyle, clinical, sociodemographic data, and other cardiometabolic risk markers.
Methods: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 197 participants. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic data, eating habits and lifestyle information were collected using the Global Risk Score and the Framingham Risk Score. P-value < 0,05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: According to the Framingham Risk Score, 84% of the assessed population was considered low risk and 16% as intermediate/high risk. However, according to the Global Risk Score, 18% of the participants were low risk, 45% were intermediate risk and 37% were high risk for infarction or death from coronary heart disease in 10 years.
Conclusion: Excess body weight and uric acid serum levels showed to be significant cardiovascular risk markers in addition to those of the score and, consequently, they should be considered in clinical practice.

Association between dietary pattern cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescentes: a systematic review

Naruna Pereira Rocha, Luana Cupertino Milagres, Giana Zarbato Longo, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Juliana Farias de Novaes

Jornal de Pediatria, v.93, n.3, p. 214-222.
Impact Factor: 2,081

Abstract
Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.
Data source: This article followed the recommendations of PRISMA, which aims to guide review publications in the health area. The article search strategy included searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, and LILACS. There was no date limitation for publications. The descriptors were used in English according to MeSH and in Portuguese according to DeCS. Only articles on dietary patterns extracted by the a posteriori methodology were included. The question to be answered was: how much can an ‘‘unhealthy’’ dietary pattern influence biochemical and inflammatory markers in this population?
Data synthesis: The studies showed an association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations. The patterns were characterized as unhealthy when associated to the consumption of ultraprocessed products, poor in fiber and rich in sodium, fat, and refined carbohydrates. Despite the associations, in several studies, the strength of this association for some risk markers was reduced or lost after adjusting for confounding variables.
Conclusion: There was a positive association between ‘‘unhealthy’’ dietary patterns and cardiometabolic alterations in children and adolescents. Some unconfirmed associations may be related to the difficulty of assessing food consumption. Nevertheless, studies involving dietary patterns and their association with risk factors should be performed in children and adolescents, aiming at interventions and early changes in dietary habits considered to be inadequate

Association of eating patterns and abdominal adiposity in Brazilian

Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Wellington Segheto, Fabrícia Geralda Reis, Kátia Josiane Segheto, Giana Zarbato Longo

Revista de Nutrição, v. 30, p. 783-793
Impact Factor:

Abstract
Objective: To examine the relationship between dietary patterns and abdominal adiposity among adults living in the urban area of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 959 adults of both sexes. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake was collected through questionnaires. Abdominal adiposity was evaluated using waist circumference and the anthropometric indices waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. Food patterns were identified by factor analysis. Poisson regression was used for multivariate analysis.
Results: Abdominal adiposity was identified by waist circumference in 59.06% (95%CI=52.77–65.08) of the sample, by waist-to-hip ratio in 54.65% (95%CI=47.92–61.21), and by waist-to-height ratio in 9% (95%CI=54.61–69.03). Two dietary patterns, named as traditional Brazilian and bar, were identified in the sample, but only the latter was statistically associated with abdominal adiposity determined by the three parameters.
Conclusion: The study identified two eating patterns in the population, a healthy and an unhealthy pattern, the latter being associated with greater odds of abdominal adiposity. Thus, it is important to take measures to reverse this trend.

Evaluation of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira: from standards to practice

Cíntia Pereira Donateli, Ariadne Barbosa Einloft, Patrícia Avelar, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Glauce Dias da Costa

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, V.22, p.3439-3455
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract
Health Surveillance is of paramount importance when confronted with the current Brazilian epidemiological setting. This study aims to evaluate the level of Health Surveillance in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. This is an evaluative study, and data were collected in the first half of 2016. The research universe consisted of seven municipalities in the Zona da Mata Mineira complex. Municipalities were selected with reference to available operational epidemiological, environmental and sanitary surveillance. The subjects under analysis were the Surveillance coordinators (n = 21), Health Surveillance coordinators (n = 7) and Health secretaries (n = 7). We conducted interviews using a semi-structured and elaborated questionnaire based on the Donabedian triad: Structure, Process and Outcome. A score system was established in order to obtain the classification of performance, realm and sub-realms, in which a score was assigned for each criterion. We used incipient, intermediate or advanced cutoff points to classify the level of Health Surveillance of scores were below 5.99 points, between 6.0 and 7.99 points and between 8 and 10 points, respectively. The level of regional Health Surveillance performance level was classified as an intermediate.

Bacupari peel extracts (Garcinia brasiliensis) reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats

Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Dorina Izabel Gomes Natal, Renata Lopes Toledo, Natalia Medina Ramirez, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro, Laércio dos Anjos Benjamim, Leandro Licursi de Olvieira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino

Journal of Functional Foods , v. 29, p. 143-153.
Impact Factor: 3,144

Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ethanol extract of bacupari peel (EEB) on the adiposity and inflammation modulation in obese Wistar rats. The group treated with high fat diet plus EEB (BHFD) presented weight gain, visceral fat, and lee, and an adiposity index similar to the negative control group (AIN-93M). Also, the BHFD group showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, increase of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-c (PPAR-c) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression, and decreasing expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), and reduced the tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), blood levels of glucose, alanine aminotransferase, and adipocyte hypertrophy. The molecular docking showed that morelloflavone and 7-epiclusianone compounds from bacupari extract interacted with PPAR-c receptor, hydrophobic interaction, indicating an agonist activity of these compounds. Thus, we demonstrated that extract of bacupari presented anti-obesity activities.

Bioactive compounds of the ubá mango juices decrease inflammation and hepatic steatosis in obese wistar rats.

Dorina Izabel Gomes Natal, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, José Humberto de Queiroz, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant”Ana, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino

Journal of Functional Foods , v. 32, p. 409-418.
Impact Factor: 3,144

Abstract
Obesity is a serious epidemic pathology whose dangerous visceral fat accumulation initiates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study evaluated the effect of the bioactive compounds of the control and peel extract enriched Ubá mango juices on hepatic steatosis associated with inflammation in obese Wistar rats. Juices were good sources of the β-carotene, presented high concentration of mangiferin and contributed to decrease the liver weight in animals. Total antioxidant capacity was higher in a group fed with control Ubá mango juice and resistin concentration reduced in both test groups intake Ubá mango juices became similar to normal control. In addition, the percentages of fat vesicles and inflammatory infiltrate in the liver was higher to the animals that intake HFD, and both juices reduced these parameters. Therefore, Ubá mango has potential as a functional food and effect to reduce metabolic risk of the hepatic steatosis associated with inflammation.

Chemical composition of brazilian chia seeds grown in different places.

Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana

Food Chemistry, v. 221, p. 1709-1716.
Impact Factor: 4,529

This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2 g.100 g-1, on average), proteins (18.9 g.100 g-1, on average), dietary fiber (35.3 g.100 g-1, on average), vitamin E (8,203.6 µg.100 g-1, on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08 ± 1.08 eq.catequina/g sample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E.

Chronic joint symptoms in adults: a population-based study.

Silvia Oliveira Morais, Wellington Segheto, Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira, Karina Oliveira Martinho, Anna Ligia Cabral da Rocha, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Giana Zarbato Longo

Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, v.63, p.575-582.
Impact Factor: 0,931

Abstract
Objective: To analyze factors associated with chronic joint symptoms (CJS) in adults.
Method: A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with a sample of 1,217 adults aged between 20 and 59 years, in the city of Viçosa, in 2014. The sampling process was performed by conglomerates and sample was selected using a two-stage cluster-sampling scheme. First, 30 of the 99 census tracts of Viçosa were randomly selected using a random sampling scheme, without replacement. Household questionnaires were applied to obtain CJS data, sociodemographic conditions, behavioral factors and health status. Multivariable analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, adjusted for the sampling design effect, using the svy commands in Stata software.
Results: Prevalence of CJS totaled 31.27%, significantly higher in women (18.45). Age ranges 40-49 (PR 1.50; 95CI 1.16-1.92) and 50-59 years (PR 1.55; 95CI 1.07-2.25); overweight (PR 1.60; 95CI 1.28-2.00); obesity (PR 1.60; 95CI 1.11-2.29); and those who self-reported performing heavy work (PR 1.27; 95CI 1.09-1.48) showed higher prevalences of CJS.
Conclusion: Women and individuals who were older, overweight and performing heavy work had a higher risk of CJS in this adult population residing in Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Clinical application of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage for overweight women with abdominal obesity: prospective, double-blinded and randomized clinical trial

Camilla Ribeiro Vieira, Fernanda Laurides Ribeiro de Oliveira Lomeu, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino, Roberta Ribeiro Silva

Journal of Food Biochemistry, v.2017, p. 1-11.
Impact Factor: 1,000

Abstract
Objective: To assess the effect of a cocoa and unripe banana flour beverage (UBF) on fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal characteristics and inflammation, in overweight women with abdominal adiposity.
Methods: This prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial involved 60 female volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years. One group received a cocoa beverage (n=30) and one group received a cocoa and UBF beverage (n=30), for 6 weeks. Intestinal microbiota was indirectly assessed by consistency, shape, and color of feces, determination of fecal SCFA, and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Results: Both beverages increased the production of propionic acid (p<.05) and decreased gastrointestinal symptoms (p<.05). The cocoa beverage decreased indigestion (p<.05) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-17.
Conclusion: Cocoa and cocoa with UBF beverages decreased the symptoms of dyspepsia, improved gastrointestinal symptoms, and increased production of propionic acid, favoring healthy intestinal microbiota. Only the cocoa beverage showed an anti-inflammatory effect.
Practical applications: Unripe banana flour and cocoa have been widely used to decrease cardiovascular risk, by improving inflammatory parameters and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the interaction between these two food ingredients and the implication of their interaction on human health remains unknown. Important health benefits may be achieved by assessing the synergism or antagonism of functional foods, particularly when they coexist in the same product. This study aims to attract the interest of the scientific community to conduct more studies on functional bioavailability. Both unripe banana flour and cocoa can have therapeutic potential but it may not be a good idea to associate them. This article provides relevant information to the scientific and broader community regarding the preparation of these foods, to maximize their health benefits on a daily basis, and, additionally, offers the food industry valuable knowledge that can be used to develop healthier food products.

 

Comparison between direct and indirect methods to diagnose malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk in haemodialisys patients.

Karla Pereira Balbino, Andreza de Paula Santos, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro, L. D. M. da Silva, M. G. Gouvea, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermdorff

Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, v. 30, n.5, p. 645-654
Impact Factor: 2,638

Abstract
Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) by comparing nutritional risk scores with biochemical, anthropometric and body composition variables.
Methods: Eighty-five individuals [65.9% male, mean (SD) age 62 (14) years] participated in a cross-sectional study. Global Objective Assessment (GOA) and Modified Global Subjective Assessment (mGSA) scores, as well as biochemical, anthropometric and body composition data, were collected using
standardised procedures.
Results: The prevalence of malnutrition ranged from 20.0% (% body fat by electrical bioimpedance) to 95.3% (by GOA), depending on the indicator or score used. According to the waist circumference, 61.2% of the individuals presented abdominal obesity and visceral adipose tissue was excessive in 20% of them. Malnutrition diagnosis by GOA showed the relationship between the anthropometric and body composition indicators, as assessed by the extent that the ratings of risk nutritional/mild malnutrition and mainly moderate malnutrition were accompanied by a significant decrease in nutritional status and body composition variables. However, with respect to categories of mGSA, no statistically significant differences were observed for nutritional status and body composition variables. In the receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, mGSA and GOA were good indicators for diagnosing malnutrition because both achieved an AUC > 0.5.
Conclusions: mGSA and GOA were more sensitive with respect to identifying individuals at nutritional risk compared to the isolated anthropometric indicators, thus indicating their utility in diagnostic malnutrition. However, individuals at high nutritional risk also presented cardiometabolic risk, as diagnosed mainly by central fat indicators, suggesting the application of both malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk markers in HD patients.

Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil improves body composition and blood pressure in excess body fat women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Flávia Galvão Cândido, Flávia Xavier Valente, Láis Emilia da Silva, Olivia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Maria do carmo Gouviea Peluzio, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

European Journal of Nutrition, v. 2017, p. 1-11.
Impact Factor: 4,370

Abstract
Purpose: Despite the fact that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is widely used in obese individuals to treat cardiovascular diseases, the role of EVOO on weight/fat reduction remains unclear. We investigated the effects of energy-restricted diet containing EVOO on body composition and metabolic disruptions related to obesity.
Methods: This is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial in which 41 adult women with excess body fat (mean ± SD 27.0 ± 0.9 year old, 46.8 ± 0.6% of total body fat) received daily high-fat breakfasts containing 25 mL of soybean oil (control group, n = 20) or EVOO (EVOO group, n = 21) during nine consecutive weeks. Breakfasts were part of an energy-restricted normal-fat diets (−2090 kJ, ~32%E from fat). Anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed, and fasting blood was collected on the first and last day of the experiment.
Results: Fat loss was ~80% higher on EVOO compared to the control group (mean ± SE: −2.4 ± 0.3 kg vs. −1.3 ± 0.4 kg, P = 0.037). EVOO also reduced diastolic blood pressure when compared to control (–5.1 ± 1.6 mmHg vs. +0.3 ± 1.2 mmHg, P = 0.011). Within-group differences (P < 0.050) were observed for HDL-c (−2.9 ± 1.2 mmol/L) and IL-10 (+0.9 ± 0.1 pg/mL) in control group, and for serum creatinine (+0.04 ± 0.01 μmol/L) and alkaline phosphatase (−3.3 ± 1.8 IU/L) in the EVOO group. There was also a trend for IL-1β EVOO reduction (−0.3 ± 0.1 pg/mL, P = 0.060).
Conclusion: EVOO consumption reduced body fat and improved blood pressure. Our results indicate that EVOO should be included into energy-restricted programs for obesity
treatment.

Performance of primary health care according to pcatool instrument a systematic review.

Mariana Louzada Prates, Juliana Costa Machado, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Patrícia Silva Avelar, Luciana Louzada Prates, Erica Toledo de Mendonça, Glauce Dias da Costa, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.22, 1881-1993
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract:
This study aims to analyze studies that evaluated the performance of Primary Health Care (PHC) services by using the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool) under a worldwide user perspective. This is a systematic review that implemented the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model, from the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, PubMed and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) Journals Website, using descriptors Primary Care Assessment Tool and PCATool. Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, we analyzed 22 research papers published from 2007 to 2015. The best-evaluated attributes were cultural competence, first contact use and longitudinality. On the other hand, the worst evaluated were first contact accessibility, family orientation, community orientation and comprehensiveness. Most of the health services evaluated were from Brazil, applied to “traditional” primary care clinic (UBS) and the Health Family Strategy (FHS). Services evaluated should strengthen structure and process components to achieve a better performance in PHC.

Determinants of the mean growth rate of children under the age of six months: a cohort study

Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonseca, Carolina Abreu de Carvalho, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Luciana Neri Nobre, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 22, n.8, p. 2713-2726
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate some factors that contributed to higher or lower growth rate of children up to the sixth month of life. This is a cohort study with 240 children evaluated in four stages. Variables of birth, eating habits of the child, mothers’ breast-feeding difficulty and pacifier use were investigated. Children’s weight gain rate (grams/day) and size gain (cm/month) were measured in all assessments and compared according to the variables of interest. In the first month, weight gain rate of children born by cesarean section was smaller. By the second month, the growth rate (weight and size gain) was higher among children who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed and lower among those who consumed infant formula. Children of mothers who reported difficulty to breastfeed showed a lower growth rate until the second month. Children age four months who consumed porridge had lower weight and size gain rate. Pacifier use was associated with lower weight gain rates up the first, second and fourth month.

Diagnostic accuracy of different methods of early detection of chronic kidney disease

Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Rodrigo Gomes da Silva

Journal of Public Health (print), v. 25, n.4, p. 401-407
Impact Factor: 2,125

Abstract
Aim: To assess the accuracy of the CG, CG-corrected, MDRD-6, MDRD-4 and CKD-EPI formulae when diagnosing CKD and to compare the results for creatinine clearance.
Subject and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with hypertensive individuals monitored by the Primary Health Care Service in Brazil (n = 293). Renal function was analyzed based on serum creatinine levels and creatinine clearance (24 h). The GFR was estimated using the CG, CG-corrected, MDRD-6, MDRD-4 and CKD-EPI formulae. The accuracy of the CKD diagnosis was assessed by analyzing sensitivity and specificity with confidence intervals (95%), receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) values.
Results: The CKD-EPI formula provided the best balance between sensitivity, 76.7 (66.4–85.2), and specificity, 71.9 (65.3–78.0), as well as the highest AUC value (0.808). Concerning the ROC analysis, the curve of the CKD-EPI formula confirmed its greater precision.
Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the CKD-EPI formula is the best method for estimating the GFR. Thus, it is possible to implement low-cost actions focused on the early detection and prevention of complications of CKD.

Dietary calcium from dairy, body composition and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes pursuing an energy restricted diet: a parallel group randomized clinical trial

Júnia Maria Geraldo Gomes, Jorge de Assis Costa, Rita de Cassia Gonçalves Alfenas

International Dairy Journal, v. 73, p.50-56
Impact Factor: 2,067

Abstract:
In a 12-week duration parallel group randomised clinical trial, we evaluated the effect of increasing calcium (Ca) intake on body composition and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Thirty-six subjects with low habitual Ca intake (<600 mg d-1), consumed low-Ca diet (CD group, 800 mg d-1) or high-Ca fat-free milk diet (MD group, 1500 mg d-1). MD group final anthropometric measures (body weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and fat mass) decreased compared with baseline. MD group showed greater decrease in waist circumference compared with CD group. Final fasting glucose decreased in CD group compared with baseline. Both groups reduced glycated haemoglobin. Consumption of high-Ca diet from dairy for 12 weeks was effective in reducing abdominal adiposity, but provided no additional effect on glycaemic control in overweight patients with T2DM.

Dietary calcium intake is inversely associated with blood pressure in Brazilian children

Elma Izze da Silva Magalhães, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Juliana Farias de Novaes

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v.28, n.3, p.331-338.
Impact Factor: 1,444

Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the dietary calcium intake and its association with blood pressure in childhood. It is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 347 Brazilian children aged 8 and 9 years. We evaluated calcium intake through three dietary records. Blood pressure was measured following the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology. The intake of calcium was below recommendations for almost all children (96.3%). There was statistically significant difference in the means of systolic (p¼.041) and diastolic (p¼.047) blood pressure in the tertiles of calcium intake. After adjustment of regression model, each tertile of calcium intake showed that the systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced in 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 2.84 to 0.21) and 1.83mmHg (95% confidence interval: 3.49 to 0.19), respectively. Our results showed an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure in childhood.

Effect of chronic consumption of pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) on glucose metabolism in pre-diabetics and type 2 diabetics: A systematic review.

Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Alessandra da Silva, Alinne Paula de Almeida, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

Critical Reviews Food Science, 2017, p.1-9.
Impact Factor: 6,077

Abstract:
Pistachio is a nut with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyphenols and carotenoids content, and the synergism between these compounds appears to affect glucose metabolism. In this systematic review we analyzed studies in which the effect of chronic consumption of pistachio on markers of glucose metabolism was evaluated in pre-diabetic and type 2 diabetics. We used the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Lilacs databases. The research terms used were pistachio, pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, blood glucose, hyperglycemia and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Four articles were selected, of which three tested the intake of 50 to 57 g of pistachio/day and one 20% of the daily caloric intake, for a period of 1 to 4 months. Studies reported a decrease in fasting blood glucose, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and fructosamine, but no change in HbA1c. Lower concentrations of miR-192 and miR-375 were also found, which correlated positively with HOMA-IR. The synergism between PUFA, MUFA, polyphenols and carotenoids present in pistachios can modulate specific miRNA, increasing insulin sensitivity through the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. This modulation can be used as a tool to monitor the response to interventions, favoring the prevention and treatment of complications related to diabetes.

Effect of the storage time and temperature on phenolic compounds of sorghum grain and flour

Kênia Grasielle de Oliveira, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Lanamar de Almeida Carlos,
Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Cícero Beserra de Menezes, Ernani Clarete da Silva, Frederico Barros

Food Chemistry, v. 216, p. 390-398
Impact Factor: 4,429

Abstract:
This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature (4, 25 and 40 ºC) and time on the color and contents of 3-deoxyanthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenols and tannins of sorghum stored for 180 days. Two genotypes SC319 (grain and flour) and TX430 (bran and flour) were analyzed. The SC319 flour showed luteolinidin and apigeninidin contents higher than the grain and the TX430 bran had the levels of all compounds higher than the flour. The storage temperature did not affect most of the analyzed variables. The content of most of the compounds reduced during the first 60 days when they became stable. At day 180, the retention of the compounds in the genotypes SC319 and TX430 ranged from 56.1–77.9% and 67.3–80.1% (3-deoxyanthocyanins), 88.4–93.8% and 84.6–96.8% (total anthocyanins) and 86.7–86.8 and 89.4–100% (phenols) respectively. The retention of tannins ranged from 56.6 to 85.3%. The color of samples remained stable for 120 days.

Effects of coconut oil consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive responses in women with excess body fat.

Flávia Xavier Valente, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Lílian Lelis Lopes, Desirrê Morais Dias, Samantha Dalbosco Lins Carvalho, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Josefina Bressan

European Journal of Nutrition (PRINT), v. 2017, p.1-11.
Impact Factor: 4,370

Abstract:
Purpose: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a medium-chain fatty acid source with popularly attributed benefits on obesity management. However, its role on obesity requires elucidation due to its saturated nature. In the study herein, we investigated acute effects of VCO consumption on energy metabolism, cardiometabolic risk markers, and appetitive
responses in women with excess body fat.
Methods: Fifteen adult women with excess body fat (37.43 ± 0.83%) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study. Two isocaloric mixed breakfasts containing 25 mL of VCO or control (extra-virgin olive oil-C) were evaluated. Resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation rate (FOR), diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) and appetitive subjective responses were assessed at fasting and postprandial periods (up to 240 min). Cardiometabolic risk markers were assessed at fasting and up to 180 min postprandially.
Results: VCO did not affect REE, FOR, and DIT compared to C. In addition, VCO did not cause deleterious change in triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides/
HDL-c ratio, uric acid, glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) (Ptime×treatment > 0.05). However, VCO suppressed less hunger (Ptime×treatment = 0.003), total satiety (PiAUC = 0.021) and total fullness (PiAUC = 0.035) responses than C.
Conclusions: VCO consumption did not acutely change energy metabolism and cardiometabolic risk markers when added to a mixed breakfast but promoted less appetitive responses.

Enriched sorghum cookies with biofortified sweet potato carotenoids have good acceptance and high iron bioavailability

Rufino Antônio Infante, Dorina Isabel Gomes Natal, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Maria Inês Dantas Bastiani, Camila Gonçalves Oliveira Chagas, Marília Regini Nutti, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiróz, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino

Journal of Functional Foods, v.38, p.89-99.
Impact Factor: 3,144

Abstract:
Aim was to evaluate acceptability and iron bioavailability of enriched sorghum cookies with biofortified sweet potato carotenoids. Acceptability and chemical composition were analyzed in four formulations with dry or extruded sorghum and its combination with high carotenoid sweet potato. Enriched cookies presented the highest acceptance as well as nutritional quality, and they were used to measure iron bioavailability by depletion/repletion. The animals fed with Fe-free diet during three weeks were divided in three groups for two weeks: ferrous sulphate control and two tests with the enriched cookies (DEC-D, EEC-D). Hemoglobin were similar among experimental groups and the enzymes expression related to iron metabolism increased in the duodenum of EEC-D. TAC in plasma was similar between test groups and higher when compared to the control. Therefore, biofortified sweet potato carotenoids increased nutritional and sensory quality of the cookies allowing potential action as functional food to reduce risk of iron deficiency anemia.

Euterpe edulis extracts positively modulates the redox status and expression of inflammatory mediators.

Rodrigo de Barros Freitas, Romulo Dias Novaes, Bianca G. M., Eliziária C. S., Murilo G. F., Luciano Fieto, Luciana M. L., Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Reggiane Vilela, João Paulo Viana Leite

Food and Agricultural Immunology, v. 2017, p. 1- 13
Impact Factor: 1,392

Abstract:
Fruits of Euterpe spp. are rich in phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, which are endowed with a high antioxidant capacity. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of derivatives from Euterpe spp. fruits on oxidative metabolism and inflammatory mediators. The oil (OE), total lyophilized pulp (LEE) and defatted pulp (LEDE) were obtained from the fruits of Euterpe edulis. Thirtysix animals were divided into four experimental groups: G1: Control; G2: OE (4%), G3: LEE (10%), G4: LEDE (10%), each of which received a particular extract in their diet for 50 days. The activities of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde produced in liver and expression of proinflammatory cytokines tissue were lower in G4 than in the other groups. The study indicates that dietary supplementation with extracts of E. edulis has no deleterious effects and may be beneficial, especially for LEDE extracts containing high concentrations of anthocyanin.

 
Evaluation of diet quality of the elderly and associated factors

Dalila Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Maria Sônia Lopes Duarte, Milene Cristine Pessoa,
Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro

Archives Of Gerontology And Geriatrics, v. 72, p. 174-180.
Impact Factor: 2,086

Abstract:
Background: Observational studies suggest healthy dietary patterns are associated with risk reduction and better control of various chronic diseases. However, few Brazilian studies have focused on evaluating the quality of the elderly diet and its relationship with diseases. This study aimed to estimate the association between diet quality and socioeconomic factors, health and nutrition of the elderly.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based study whose target population were non-institutionalized elderly residents in the city of Viçosa, Brazil. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, health conditions, lifestyle and food consumption variables were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire. The quality of the diet was assessed by the revised Healthy Eating Index classified into tertiles, considering the first tertile as “Poor diet quality,” the second as ‘Intermediate diet quality’ and the third as “Better diet quality.” To identify factors independently associated with diet quality model, the works used multinomial logistic regression.
Results: In the results of the multivariate analysis, the factors independently associated with “better diet quality” included female gender, higher education, history of one to five medical visits in the past year, history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the use of polypharmacy.
Discussion: Our results show that most seniors need to improve the quality of their diet and those of male gender with no or little education, and those who do not seek medical services constitute the group that needs attention concerning the measures to improve the quality of their diet.

Nutritional status variation and intestinal and extra intestinal symptomatology in patients with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity given specialized dietary advice

Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Andreza de Paula Santos, Cristiana Santos Andreoli, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro, Mônica de Paula Jorge, Ana Vládia Bandeira Moreira

Revista de Nutrição, v.30, n.1, p.57-67
Impact Factor: 0,333

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the nutritional status variation and symptomatology of patients with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity after specialized dietary advice.
Methods: This prospective study included 80 patients with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Clinical, metabolic, and nutritional variables were collected from medical records, and the symptomatology was investigated by the Metabolic Screening Questionnaire. The variables were assessed on two occasions (T1 – before dietary advice and T2 – after dietary advice) with an interval of three months between T1 and T2.
Results: The median age was 42 years. The prevalences of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity were 66.2% and 33.8%, respectively. Normal weight prevailed at T1 (58.8%) and T2 (56.3%), but 30.0% of the patients at T1 and 34.9% of the patients at T2 had excess weight. The two conditions had similar symptomatology. The most frequent signs and symptoms on both occasions involved the gastrointestinal tract, followed by energy/activity and emotions. All symptoms decreased significantly after the introduction of a proper diet.
Conclusion: The patients were normal weight on both study occasions (T1 and T2), and the symptoms improved after dietary advice. Thus, we reinforce the importance of proper dietary management in both clinical conditions to make dietary adjustments that improve these individuals’ symptomatology.

 

Exposure to the insecticide endosulfan induces liver morphology alterations and oxidative stress in fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus)

Jerusa Maria Oliveira, Alessandro Brinati, Liany Divina Lima Miranda, Danielle Barbosa Morais, Jose Cola Zanuncio, Reggiani Vilela Goncalves, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Mariella Bontempo Freitas

International Journal of Experimental Pathology, v.98, n.1, p. 17-25
Impact Factor: 1,780

Abstract:
Exposure to pesticides may increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidation of cell membrane lipids and proteins. Although fruit bats are potentially exposed to pesticides during their entire lifespan, the impacts of this exposure are still poorly investigated. We examined the effects of low, commercially recommended concentrations (0, 1.05 and 2.1 g/l) of an organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (EDS) formulation on oxidative responses in the liver and kidneys of Neotropical fruit bats (Artibeus lituratus), as well as possible liver morphological alterations following a 35-day oral exposure. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased upon exposure to 1.05 g/l of EDS in the liver and kidneys, catalase was decreased in the liver of 2.1 g/l EDS-exposed bats, while glutathione Stransferase was increased in the liver of 2.1 g/l EDS-exposed bats. Protein carbonyls increased following the exposure to the highest EDS dose tested. Endosulfan-induced morphological alterations in the liver included cell degeneration and cell death, with apparent cytoplasm lipid accumulation (steatosis) and pyknotic nuclei, karyolysis and deposit of collagen fibres. Our findings suggest that exposure to low concentrations of EDS induced a certain extent of oxidative damage in fruit bats, which may have led to liver morphological alterations.

Factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years

Hercílio Paulino André, Sarah Aparecida Vieira, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Silvia Eloiza Priore

Revista de Nutrição, v. 30, n. 3, p. 345-355.
Impact Factor: 0,333

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate factors associated with the iron nutritional status of Brazilian children aged 4 to 7 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 357 children aged 4-7 years who had been followed-up up for during their first six months of life by the Breastfeeding Support Program. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, feeding practices, nutritional status (height-for-age and body mass index-for-age), and serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate factors independently associated with iron nutritional status (hemoglobin and ferritin), considering α=0.05 as the significance level.
Results: The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency was (34) 9.52% and (11) 11.00%, respectively. The factors independently associated with anemia were younger child age, low maternal education, low height-for-age Z-scores, and children of single and separated mothers or widows. Iron deficiency was associated with child younger age and consumption of chocolates and chocolate flavored milk.
Conclusion: The results obtained allow us to conclude that anemia among children 4-7 years of age is a public health problem in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Therefore, there is a need for intervention measures targeting children in this age group. These measures can be implemented through food and nutritional education by encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods.

Sociodemographic, perinatal and behavioral factors associated to types of milk consumed by children under in six months: birth coort

Carolina Abreu de Carvalho, Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonsêca, Luciana Neri Nobre, Mariane Alves Silva, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.22, p. 3699-3710.
Impact Factor: 0,780

Resumo:
This study evaluated factors associated with the consumption of breast milk (BM), infant formula (IF) and cow milk (CM) in children. This was a cohort study with 256 children followed-up at the 1st, 4th and 6th month of age in Viçosa (MG), Brazil. With respect to CM and IF, consumption was recorded regardless of BM intake. Regarding BM, only exclusive or predominant consumption was considered. From the 1st to the 6th month, an increase was recorded in the number of children who did not consume BM exclusively or predominantly (31.6%), as well as the consumption of CM (27.2%) and IF (9.3%). BM was associated with pacifier use at 1st month, and mother’s employment status and pacifier use in the 4th and 6th month. Pacifier use was a risk factor for IF consumption in every month, while belonging to the lower income group was inversely associated in the 6th month. As for CM, the number of prenatal visits was a risk factor in every month, the mother’s employment status and use of pacifier in the 4th month, family income, mother’s employment status, low birth weight, number of prenatal visits and pacifier use in the 6th month. Since the 1st month, the introduction of other milk types is high, revealing that there is still much to go to ensure exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months.

Impact of dietary fat on gut microbiota and lowgrade systemic inflammation: mechanisms and clinical implications on obesity

Flávia Galvão Cândido, Flávia Xavier Valente, Łukasz Marcin Grześkowiak, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v. 2017, p. 1-19
Impact Factor: 1,444

Abstract:
Dietary fat strongly affects human health by modulating gut microbiota composition and lowgrade systemic inflammation. High-fat diets have been implicated in reduced gut microbiota richness, increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, and several changes at family, genus and species levels. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) and conjugated linolenic fatty acids share important pathways of immune system activation/inhibition with gut microbes, modulating obesogenic and proinflammatory profiles. Mechanisms that link dietary fat, gut microbiota and obesity are mediated by increased intestinal permeability, systemic endotoxemia, and the activity of the endocannabinoid system. Although the probiotic therapy could be a complementary strategy to improve gut microbiota composition, it did not show permanent effects to treat fat-induced dysbiosis. Based upon evidence to date, we believe that high-fat diets and SFA consumption should be avoided, and MUFA and omega-3 PUFA intake should be encouraged in order to regulate gut microbiota and inflammation, promoting body weight/fat control.

Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Laura Luiza Menezes Santos, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.22, n.2, p. 583-592
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract:
Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® – UR®) on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group) and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

The impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food consumption: a comparative study of the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil

Naiara Sperandio, Cristiana Tristão Rodrigues, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.22, n.6, p. 1771-1780
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (PBF) on food consumption in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil. The database was obtained from the individual food consumption module of the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008-09. Consumption was assessed through two food records. The food was categorized into four groups: fresh or minimally processed food; culinary ingredients; processed food; and ultra-processed food. To analyze the impact, the propensity score matching method was used, which compares the individual recipients and non-recipients of the PBF in relation to a group of socioeconomic characteristics. After the propensity score was calculated, the impact of the PBF was estimated through the nearest-neighbor matching algorithm. In both regions, more than 60% of the daily total calories consumed by PBF recipients came from foods that had not undergone industrial processing. The recipients of PBF had a low level of consumption of processed and ultra-processed food in both regions, and an increased level of consumption of fresh or minimally processed food in the northeast. The results indicate the importance of adopting intersectoral policies in parallel to the PBF in order to strengthen healthy eating practices.

Impact of the Food Acquisition Program on the food and nutrition security of the farmers

Silmara Christina Rodrigues de Assis, Silvia Eloíza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.22, n.2, p. 617-626
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract:
The scope of this systematic review was to analyze the impact of the Food Acquisition Program on the diversification of production, on-farm consumption and food and nutritional security of the family-based farmer and supplier beneficiaries. Searches were conducted in the Lilacs and SciELO electronic databases and the Capes journal portal. The publications were pre-selected based on their titles, followed by reading of the abstracts and the full text of the studies. Articles that evaluated the program’s implementation, along with those that referred to food and nutrition security of consumers who benefitted from the program, as well as repeat and review articles, were excluded. Of the 193 studies reviewed, 7 were chosen. In all of those selected, there were positive impacts of the Food Acquisition Program on increasing family income, benefiting from access to the market and moving their produce. This made it possible to improve the production system and fostered crop diversification both for trade and for on-farm consumption of the families, having a positive impact on the food and nutrition security situation of the farmers.

Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Anna, Célia Lucia de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Sylvia do Carmo de Castro Franceschini

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 22, n.2, p. 359-368.
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height), biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin – MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol) and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record) evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g) was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

Influence of package and health-related claims on perception and sensory acceptability of snack bars

Vinícius Rodrigues Arruda Pinto, Tamara Beatriz de Oliveira Freitas, Maria Inês de Souza Dantas, Suzana Maria Della Lucia, Laura Fernandes Melo, Valéria Paula Rodrigues Minim, Josefina Bressan

Food Research International, v.101, p.103-113
Impact Factor: 3,086

Abstract:
Concerns for health can lead to healthier food choices, especially if the consumer is well informed. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of package and health-related claims on Brazilian consumers’ acceptance of snack bars. In order to evaluate package attributes, in focus groups discussions, 19 consumers chose the most important factors that influence their purchase decisions. Next, 102 consumers evaluated six commercial brands of snack bars in a three-session acceptance test: the first with no information about the product, the second containing the product package and the third with information on health-related claims associated with consumption of the bar. In general, package attributes, price and flavor were the most important factors that influence the purchase of snack bars. Health claims positively influenced consumer acceptance, but information concerning the absence of gluten and lactose did not significantly alter sensory acceptance. The presence of omega-3s, sugars, preservatives, flavorings and colorings have the potential to improve acceptability, because they were able to raise the acceptance of the seed bar, removing it from the rejection region. Protein and nut bars are not well known to the general public and the lower mean acceptance of the seed and protein bars demonstrated the need for sensorial improvement.

Anthropometric and dietary surveys of the Brazilian population: an important source of data for conducting research

Naiara Sperandio, Silvia Eloiza Priore

Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.22, n.2, p. 499-508.
Impact Factor: 0,780

Resumo:
The scope of the current study was to analyze the methodological differences between Brazilian anthropometric and dietary surveys, which are classified as home, school and telephone surveys, as well as to reflect on the potential benefits and obstacles involved in the use of secondary data. The documents that are the focus of this study are official published reports of the surveys. The results indicated methodological differences in the assessment of food intake, anthropometry, frequency and form of access to the databases. The secondary data sources, which were previously limited to the dissemination of printed reports, were made available as micro-data in electronic databases. However, these databases are as yet not frequently consulted by health researchers due to the complexity of data extraction and analysis. For this reason, courses on how to develop skills to use these databases in graduate health courses should be included as they contain variables related to the health and nutrition status of the population, in addition to socioeconomic and demographic variables, which are not found in traditional health information systems. The conclusion drawn is that working with secondary data requires training and that the use of this source of information contributes to adequate planning in health.

Integração intercampi no ensino: desenvolvendo competências do profissionalismo

Erica Toledo de Mendonça, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Vicente de Paula Lelis, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Paulo Marcondes Carvalho Junior

Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica (IMPRESSO),v. 40, n.3, p. 344-354.
Impact Factor:

Objetivo: Analisar o desenvolvimento das competências do profissionalismo em estudantes de diferentes áreas do conhecimento por meio de uma proposta de ensino crítico-reflexiva, que aliou a utilização das metodologias ativas e tecnologias de informação e comunicação. Métodos: Estudo de intervenção, prospectivo, comparativo, do tipo antes e depois. Foram aplicados questionários a estudantes universitários de dois campi de uma universidade pública (Fases I e II) para avaliação do desenvolvimento de competências relacionadas ao profissionalismo. Resultados: Observou-se uma melhoria dos escores avaliativos nos itens pesquisados, o que leva a inferir que houve eficiência das estratégias de ensino, aprendizagem e avaliação utilizadas. Conclusões: O desenvolvimento das competências pesquisadas é importante para outras áreas do conhecimento, uma vez que estas incluem a aprendizagem dos aspectos relacionados a cidadania, ética, comunicação, trabalho em equipe e raciocínio crítico e reflexivo, entendidos como requisitos universais para a formação de qualquer estudante universitário.

Internato rural médico como importante estratégia de (trans)formação da educação médica: um relato de experiência sobre o trabalho interdisciplinar no controle da hipertensão arterial

Rodrigo Mitre Cotta, Isadora Brandão Pelucio, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Fernanda Mitre Cotta, Filipe Souza Fernandes, Robson Costa Freitas, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta

Journal of Management and Primary Health Care, v.8, n.1, p123-125
Impact Factor:

Resumo:
A evidência científica aponta para potenciais vantagens educacionais da inserção dos estudantes de Medicina em cenários de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Relativo à hipertensão arterial (HA), 60 a 80% dos casos podem ser tratados em nível de APS, pois são de fácil diagnóstico, não requerem tecnologia sofisticada, podendo ser controlados com medicamentos de baixo custo e mudanças de estilo de vida. O objetivo foi apresentar o relato de experiência da atuação de acadêmicos de Medicina em trabalho interprofissional no controle da HA. A investigação baseou-se em três etapas complementares: estudo observacional a fim de conhecer o território e as necessidades locais, palestras dialogadas para os portadores de HA e coleta dos dados em consultas individualizadas. Participaram do estudo 15 portadores de HA, sendo a maioria mulheres; idosos, com média de idade de 63 anos; com prevalência de 60% de sobrepeso e média de índice de massa corporal (IMC) de 27,1 kg/m2. Encontraram-se falhas no uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos, devido à falta de acompanhamento periódico pelos profissionais. Após a realização de intervenções, 86,7% tiveram redução nos valores da pressão. Os achados apontam para a importância de um acompanhamento sistemático, contínuo e longitudinal dos portadores de HA, e a importância do internato médico em serviços de APS, visando à capacitação dos futuros médicos e a experiência de trabalho interprofisional. O estudo demonstra ainda a importância da APS, porta de entrada dos indivíduos nos serviços de saúde, e o cenário onde a prevenção de complicações devem ser estabelecidos.

Mechanisms involved in the cardioprotective effect of avocado consumption: A systematic review

Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Larissa Oliveira Chaves, Letícia Linhares Da Silva, Dayane De Castro Morais, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

International Journal of Food Properties, v.20, p.1675-1685
Impact Factor: 1,427

Abstract:
The objective of this review was to verify the effects of avocado consumption on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases using the descriptor avocado, combined with CVD, monosaturated fat, antioxidant, lipoprotein, and inflammation, and their respective terms in Spanish. The review was carried out in pairs, following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) recommendations. Initially, 234 studies were identified. After selection, eight articles were included. All the studies were randomized, most were crossover studies, and involving adult subjects. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides (TG), platelet aggregation, and apolipoproteins reductions; besides highdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and serum lipid peroxidation increases; Ikappa-B protein (IkB-α) protein preservation; and NF-kappa B (NFκB) inactivation were observed. Thus, avocado consumption exerts a beneficial effect on CVDs prevention, which can be attributed to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content, especially oleic fatty acid. However, there is no consensus on the amount of avocado needed to confer such benefits.

Melatonin intake and potential chronobiological effects on human health

Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos , Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Josefina Bressan

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 2017, p. 1-11
Impact Factor: 6,077

Abstract:
Melatonin is an indolamine with a recognized chronobiotic role. In turn, the supplementation of melatonin through capsules has been shown to be efficient in the modulation of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress, as well as in the control of hypertension and metabolic syndrome. However, the science of nutrition is interested in the study of the food sources of this hormone and its possible therapeutic effects. Thus, this review aimed to identify and present scientific papers that quantified melatonin in foods and evaluated its application in intervention studies. In total, 278 studies were found, of which 17 were included in this review. The results show that meats, fish, eggs, cereals, tubers, oilseeds, mushrooms, fruits, vegetables, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and dairy products had some items analyzed for their melatonin concentrations. The concentrations reported presented considerable amplitude among different foods and even within the same species, possibly due to differences in cultivation and different hormonal dosing techniques. Also, different concentrations of melatonin can be presented for the same food when submitted to processes such as cooking, roasting or fermentation. The intervention studies presented positive results regarding the consumption of foods rich in melatonin and clinical-metabolic indicators. However, in order to guide nutritional behavior, it is necessary to consult a composition table that makes melatonin concentrations available and considers the processes involved in the preparation of the food. With this table, it will be possible to analyze the real effect of habitual consumption of melatonin from food on health.

Metabolic endotoxemia and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Júnia Maria Geraldo Gomesa, Jorge de Assis Costa, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

Metabolism, Clinical And Experimental (PRINT), v.68, p. 133-144
Impact Factor: 5,777

Abstract:
In this systematic review we analyzed studies that assessed serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or lipopolysacharide-binding protein (LBP) in diabetic patients compared with healthy people. Articles were selected using PubMed and Scopus. Search terms used were endotoxemia, endotoxins, LPS, LBP, diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), insulin resistance, humans, epidemiologic studies, population-based, survey, representative, cross-sectional, case–control studies, observational, and clinical trials. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. There was a great variability in the estimates of metabolic endotoxemia among the studies. Most of the studies observed higher LPS or LBP concentrations in diabetic subjects than in healthy controls. T1DM and T2DM subjects presented higher mean fasting LPS of 235.7% and 66.4% compared with non-diabetic subjects, respectively. Advanced complications (e.g. macroalbuminuria) and disease onset exacerbate endotoxemia. Antidiabetic medications decrease fasting LPS concentrations. Among these medications, rosiglitazone and insulin present higher and lower effects, respectively, compared with other treatments. T1DM and T2DM seem to increase metabolic endotoxemia. However, some confounders such as diet, age, medication, smoking and obesity influence both diabetes and endotoxemia manifestation. A better understanding of the interaction of these factors is still needed.

Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits.

Damiana D. Rosa, Manoela M. S. Dias, Łukasz M. Grzes´kowiak, Sandra A. Reis, Lisiane L. Conceição, Maria do Carmo G. Peluzio

Nutrition Research Reviews, v.30, n.1, p.82-96.
Impact Factor: 4,844

Abstract:
Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

Orange juice modulates proinflammatory cytokines after high-fat saturated meal consumption

Daniela M. U. P. Rocha, Lílian L. Lopes, Alessandra da Silva, Leandro L. Oliveira, Josefina
Bressana, Helen H. M. Hermsdorff

Food & Function, v.8, p. 4396-4403
Impact Factor: 3,247

Abstract:
We aimed to evaluate the postprandial secretion of inflammatory markers induced by an SFA or MUFA high-fat meal consumption and whether orange juice intake could modulate this induction. This study included 55 healthy women (aged 20 to 40 years): 33 participants received an SFA high-fat meal (≈1.000 kcal, 37.6% of energy intake (E) from SFA) and 22 participants received an MUFA high-fat meal (≈1.000 kcal, 56.3% E from MUFA). Both interventions were accompanied by 500 ml of orange juice (test) or water (control). Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF-α) and CRP were determined before (fasting) and 2, 3 and 5 hours after the test meal intake. SFA high-fat meal induced a significant increase in AUC values (for TNF-α, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-2 adjusted for baseline concentrations), in comparison with MUFA high-fat meal intervention. The results were independent of the drink which accompanied the meal (water or orange juice). Both IL-4 and IL-17A AUC values were significantly increased after an SFA high-fat meal intake, accompanied by water, but not by orange juice. In addition, these values were higher in relation to MUFA high-fat meal interventions. Also, IL-17A significantly increased at 3h after an SFA high-fat meal intake accompanied by water, but not by orange juice. Overall, our outcomes indicate an anti-inflammatory effect of MUFA compared to SFA high-aft meal intake, while orange juice intake was able to mitigate the subclinical increase of postprandial inflammation, induced by SFA high-fat meal consumption, for a particular biomarker (IL-17A).

Orange juice with a high-fat meal prolongs postprandial lipemia in apparently healthy overweight/obese women

Raquel Cristina L. A. Coelho, Helen Hermana M. Hermsdorff, Renata S. Gomide, Raquel Duarte M. Alves, Josefina Bressan

Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, v.61, p.263-268
Impact Factor: 3,247

Abstract:
Objective: We investigated the postprandial response of lipid markers to a high-fat meal (HFM) with two different beverages in apparently healthy normal-weight and overweight/obese women. Subjects and methods: This crossover, randomized study enrolled 36 women, of whom 21 had normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 22 ± 1.8 kg/m2) and 15 had overweight/obesity (BMI 31 ± 3.7 kg/m2). In two different test days, the participants ingested a HFM (37% of energy as saturated fat) with 500 mL of water (HFM-W) or 500 mL of orange juice (HFM-OJ). Blood samples were collected at baseline (12-hour fasting), and at 2, 3, and 5 hours postprandial. The analysis included fasting and postprandial total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides (TG), uric acid, and complement C3. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC); Primary Identification Number: RBR-2h3wjn (www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br). Results: TG levels increased at 3 hours with HFM-OJ in normal-weight women (p = 0.01) and returned to normal levels at 5h. TG increased at 3 hours with HFM-W (p = 0.01) and HFM-OJ (p = 0.02), and remained high at 5 hours (p = 0.03) in overweight/obese women. Complement C3 remained unchanged, but showed different responses between meals (p = 0.01 for positive
incremental area under the curve [piAUC] HFM-OJ vs. HFM-W, respectively). Conclusions: In apparently healthy overweight/obese women compared with normal-weight ones, the concomitant intake of orange juice with a HFM prolonged postprandial lipemia but had no effect on postprandial complement C3 concentrations.

Overweight and body image perception in adolescents with triage of eating disorders

Roberta Stofeles Cecon, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Silvia Eloiza Priore

The Scientific World Journal, v.2017, p.1-6
Impact Factor: 1,219

Abstract:
Purpose. To verify the influence of overweight and alteration in the perception of the corporal image during the triage of eating disorders. Method. A food disorder triage was performed in adolescents with 10 to 19 years of age using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Children’s Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), as well as a nutritional status evaluation.The perception of body image was evaluated in a subsample of adolescents with 10 to 14 years of age, using the Brazilian Silhouette Scale. The project was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results. The prevalence of eating disorder triage was 11.4% (n = 242) for the 2,123 adolescents evaluated. Overweight was present in 21.1% (n = 447) of the students, being more prevalent in the early adolescence phase, which presented levels of distortion of 56.9% (n = 740) and dissatisfaction of 79.3% (n = 1031). Body dissatisfaction was considered as a risk factor, increasing by more than 13 times the chance of TA screening. Conclusion. Overweight was correlated with the ED triage and body dissatisfaction was considered as a risk factor, increasing the chances of these disorders by more than 13 times.

Parasite control and skeletal myositis in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and exercised rats

Rômulo D. Novaes, Reggiani V. Gonc¸ Alves, Arlete R. Penitente, Marli C. Cupertino, Izabel R.S.C. Maldonado, André Talvani, Antônio J. Natali

Acta Tropica, v. 170, p.9-15
Impact Factor: 2,218

Abstract:
Non-pharmacological strategies have been rarely described in the treatment of infectious diseases.Although exercise training has been recently incorporated in the clinical management of Chagas disease,the rationale basis that supports this indication is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the effectof an aerobic exercise on the parasitism, inflammation and oxidative tissue damage in a murine modelof Trypanosoma cruzi-induced skeletal myositis. Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: trainednot infected (TNI) and infected (TI), sedentary not infected (SNI) and infected (SI). A running trainingprogram was administered 5 days/week for 9 weeks. Then, infected animals were inoculated with T. cruziand followed up for another 9 weeks. Exercise training induced beneficial adaptations by increasing timeto fatigue and lactate threshold in TNI and TI animals. SI animals presented higher parasitemia, skele-tal muscle parasitism, cell necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, cytokines levels, reactive oxygen species andnitric oxide production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonyl proteins, myosin heavy chain Idepletion, and increased catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Beyond attenuationin all these variables, TI animals showed reduced TNF-, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CX3CL1, and increased IL-10muscle levels. Furthermore, these animals presented higher CAT and SOD activities and reduced lipidand protein oxidation. Taken together, our findings indicated that exercise training induced a protectivephenotype in T. cruzi-infected mice, enhancing host defenses against the parasite and attenuating thepathological remodeling associated with skeletal myositis, aspects potentially associated to an improvedimmunological and redox balance in infected animals.

Perfil nutricional e fatores associados à desnutrição e ao óbito em pacientes com indicação de terapia nutricional

Carolina Araújo dos Santos, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro, Luciene Fatima Fernandes Almeida, Gabriela Amorim Pereira

Braspen Journal, v.32, n.1, p. 30-35

Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the nutritional status, demographic and clinical profile of hospitalized patients with nutritional support indication, as well as check the variables that relate to the occurrence of malnutrition and death. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study in a philanthropic hospital in Minas Gerais, with data from adults and elderly patients who received enteral and/or parenteral nutrition between the years 2011 to 2014. Results: Data of 688 individuals were analyzed, with mean age of 69 years (SD: 17.5 years). Among the patients, 55.5% had some degree of malnutrition according to the Subjective Global Assessment, and 22.5% were severely malnourished. Most of patients (81.5%) reached the nutritional goal and 56.6% died. Be 60 years or older, be in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the attendance by the Unified Health System were factors that were associated with higher frequency of malnutrition and death. Conclusion: It is worrying the high frequency of individuals who already begin to nutritional support with some degree of malnutrition, emphasizing the need for early nutritional intervention. Elderly and patients in ICU were potentially most vulnerable to malnutrition and death, and therefore require special attention.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids and type 2 diabetes: Impact on the glycemic control mechanism

Olívia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Lílian Lelis Lopes, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 57, n.17, p. 3614-3619
Impact Factor: 6,077

Abstract:
There is a growing mortality related to co-morbidities associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake has been associated with low cardiometabolic risk and reduction of inflammatory process. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of PUFA intake on glycemic control in diabetic patients, as well as elucidate the possible mechanisms involved. Medline/PubMed electronic database was searched to identify studies published within the last 5 years regarding the effect of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetics. The search terms used were: “polyunsaturated fatty acid (s)”, “PUFA”, and “diabetes”. We included only intervetion studies that assessed the effects of PUFA intake on glucose metabolism – fasting glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR assessment– in type 2 diabetics. Initially, 48 articles were identified, which 1 was not available and 41 did not match the inclusion criteria. Within the selected studies, 3 showed an improvement on fasting blood glucose, 2 showed an increase on fasting glycemia and there was no effect of the intervention in only 1. Based on the analyzed clinical intervention studies, supplementation of 0,42-5,2 g PUFA/day for at least 8 weeks may be an alternative treatment for T2DM, particularly to Asian people.

Relationship between overweight and dietary patterns in brazilian preschoolers.

Luciana Neri Nobre, Angelina do Carmo Lessa, Joel Alves Lamounier, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

Food and Nutrition Sciences, v.8, p.598-612.
Impact Factor:

Abstract:
Background/Objectives: The prevalence of overweight in children is a growing health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between overweight and dietary patterns in preschoolers. Methods: In total, 232 preschoolers (age 5) residing in the city of Diamantina, Brazil, were evaluated. Dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric parameters and socioeconomic/behavioral information from a questionnaire were evaluated using a cross-sectional design. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis, and the relationship between overweight and dietary patterns was examined by logistic regression analysis. Results: “Mixed diet”, “snack” and “unhealthy” dietary patterns were identified. Children daughters of obese mothers, and those who had higher average weight gain in the first four months of life had a significantly higher chance of being overweight (respective values: OR = 3.81; p = 0.002; and OR = 2.97; p = 0.009). Higher levels of maternal education were associated with higher “mixed diet” scores (p < 0.001), whereas lower levels of maternal education (p < 0.001), higher per capita income (p < 0.001) and higher average weight gain from 0 to 4 months (p = 0.002) were associated with higher “snack” scores. Higher per capita income was also associated with lower “unhealthy” scores (p < 0.001). Dietary patterns no associated with overweight. Conclusions: In the present study, overweight was not associated with dietary pattern. However, unhealthy eating habits are known to be risk factors for overweight, and considering that eating habits are formed in childhood, it is very important that healthy eating be encouraged in the family environment and in other spaces like childcare and school.

Review of the mechanisms of probiotic actions in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

Sandra A. dos Reis, Lisiane L. da Conceição, Nathane P. Siqueira, Damiana D. Rosa, Letícia L. da Silva, Maria do Carmo G. Peluzio

Nutrition Research (NEW YORK, N.Y.), v.37, p.1-19
Impact Factor: 2,737

Abstract:
The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential mechanisms of probiotics action in colorectal cancer prevention. In this regard, the composition of the intestinal microbiota is
considered as an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer, and probiotics are able to positively modulate the composition of this microbiota. Studies have shown that the regular consumption of probiotics could prevent the development of colorectal cancer. In this respect, in vitro and experimental studies suggest some potential mechanisms responsible for this anticarcinogenic action. The mechanisms include modification of the intestinal microbiota composition, changes in metabolic activity of the microbiota, binding and degradation of carcinogenic compounds present in the intestinal lumen, production of compounds with anticarcinogenic activity, immunomodulation, improvement of the intestinal barrier, changes in host physiology, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In contrast, very few reports demonstrate adverse effects of probiotic oral supplementation. In light of the present evidence, more specific studies are needed on probiotic bacteria, especially regarding the identification of the bacterial strains with greater anticarcinogenic potential; the verification of the viability of these strains after passing through the gastrointestinal tract; the investigation of potential adverse effects in immunocompromised individuals; and finally establishing the dosage and frequency of use.

Risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in adults: a population-based study

Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Wellington Segheto, France Araújo Coelho, Vanessa Guimarães Reis, Sílvia Helena Oliveira Morais, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Giana Zarbato Longo

Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, v. 22, p. 4041-4050
Impact Factor: 0,780

Abstract
The article describes the relative frequency ok of risk and protective behaviors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adults residing in Viçosa, Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study including 1,226 adults living in the municipality. We used a structured questionnaire containing questions sociodemographic and behavioral The risk and protection factors evaluated were: smoking, physical activity, excessive consumption of alcohol and food consumption. The proportion of risk and protection factors was calculated in the total population, according to gender, education and socioeconomic status. The studied population has a high frequency of risk factors for NCDs, such as excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, habit of consuming whole milk, habit of eating meat with visible fat, regular consumption of soft drinks and 78.5% did not achieve the minimum recommendation for physical activity in leisure time. With regard to protective factors, 86.2% of the population reported regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, and 73%, of beans. It was found the highest frequency of risk factors in among males, in younger people and middle socioeconomic status. This population has an urgent need for public policy of municipal planning to change this current scenario.

Sedentary behavior is associated with lower serum concentrations of vitamin d in brazilian children

Luana Cupertino Milagres, Naruna Pereira Rocha, Fernanda M. Albuquerque, Ana Paula Pereira Castro, Mariana de Santis Filgueiras, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Juliana Farias de Novaes

Public Health, v.152, v.75-78.
Impact Factor: 1,538

Sorghum extrusion process combined with biofortified sweet potato contributed for high iron bioavailability in wistar rats

Mariana Juste Contin Gomes, Rufino Antonio Infante, Barbara Pereira da Silva, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Desirrê Moraes Dias, Rita de Cassia Stampini Oliveira Lopes, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Valeria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino

Journal of Cereal Science 75 (2017) 213e219
Impact Factor: 2,223

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sorghum and sweet potato on the bioavailability of iron, gene expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism and the plasma antioxidant capacity in animals fed with whole sorghum grains processed by dry heat or extrusion, combined or not with sweet potato flour with high content of carotenoids. Five experimental groups were tested (n ¼ 7): dry heat sorghum flour (DS); extruded sorghum flour (ES); whole sorghum flour þ sweet potato flour (DS þ SP); extruded sorghum flour þ sweet potato flour (ES þ SP) and positive control (FS). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citochroma B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The ES þ SP group showed higher (p < 0.05) expression of DcytB, ferroportin and hephaestin when compared to the control group. The DS group showed high (p < 0.05) expression of DMT-1 and the ES showed high mRNA expression of transferrin and ferritin. The changes in the sorghum physicochemical properties from extrusion process reduced the iron and phytate content, and increased the gene expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism, improving iron bioavailability. The combination of sweet potato and sorghum flour (dry or extruded) improved the iron capture and total antioxidant capacity, probably due to the presence of b-carotene and antioxidant compounds.

Swim training attenuates the adverse remodeling of LV structural and mechanical properties in the early compensated phase of hypertension

Jamille Locatelli, Nívia C.N. Paiva, Sara H.R. Carvalho, Victor N. Lavorato, Luis Henrique L.S. Gomes, Quênia J.T. Castro, Andrea Grabe-Guimarães, Cláudia M. Carneiro, Antônio J. Natali, Mauro C. Isoldi

Lifes Sciences, v.187, p.42-49.
Impact Factor: 2,936

Abstract:
Aim: Investigate to what extent low-intensity swim training for six weeks counterbalances the adverse remodeling due to the advance of pathological hypertrophy in the left ventricle (LV) structural and mechanical properties in the early compensated phase of hypertension in male SHR.
Main methods: Four-month-old male SHR and Wistar rats were randomly divided into Sed (sedentary) and Ex (exercised) groups. The exercised rats were submitted to a swimming protocol (1 h/day, 5 times/week, no additional load) for six weeks. LV tissue and isolated myocytes were used to assess structural and mechanical properties. Myocytes were stimulted at frequencies (F) of 1 and 3 Hz at 37 °C.
Key findings: Exercised SHR showed improvement in cardiovascular parameters compared to sedentary SHR (mean arterial pressure: 13.22%; resting HR: 14.28.%). About structural and mechanical properties, swim training induced a decrease in LV myocyte thickness (10.85%), number of inflammatory cells (21.24%); collagen type III (74.23%) and type I (85.6%) fiber areas; amplitude of single myocyte shortening (47% to F1 and 28.46% to F3), timecourses of shortening (16.5% to F1 and 7.55% to F3) and relaxation (15.31% to F3) compared to sedentary SHR.
Significance: Six weeks of swim training attenuates the adverse remodeling of LV structural and mechanical properties in the early compensated phase of hypertension in male SHR.

The role of dietary fatty acid intake in inflammatory gene expression: a critical review

Daniela Mayumi Rocha, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Hermsdorff

São Paulo Medical Journal, v. 135, p. 157-168
Impact Factor: 0,929

Abstract:
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet is an important modifiable factor involved in obesity-induced inflammation. We reviewed clinical trials that assessed the effect of consumption of different fatty acids on the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines, adipokines, chemokines and transcription factors.
DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review study conducted at a research center.
METHODS: This was a review on the effect of fat intake on inflammatory gene expression in humans.
RESULTS: Consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was related to postprandial upregulation of genes associated with pro-inflammatory pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in comparison with monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. In addition, acute intake of a high-SFA meal also induced a postprandial pro-inflammatory response for several inflammatory genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both high-MUFA and high-PUFA diets showed anti-inflammatory profiles, or at least a less pronounced pro-inflammatory response than did SFA consumption. However, the results concerning the best substitute for SFAs were divergent because of the large variability in doses of MUFA (20% to 72% of energy intake) and n3 PUFA (0.4 g to 23.7% of energy intake) used in interventions.
CONCLUSIONS: The lipid profile of the diet can modulate the genes relating to postprandial and longterm inflammation in PBMCs and adipose tissue. Identifying the optimal fat profile for inflammatory control may be a promising approach for treating chronic diseases such as obesity.

Using the method of triads in the validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of fatty acids in adults

Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Wellington Segheto, M. F. C. de Lima, Milene Cristine Pessoa,  Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, D. M. L. Marchioni, D. B. Cunha, Giana Zarbato Longo

Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, v.2017, p.1-11
Impact Factor: 2,638

Abstract:
Background: It is of great value to develop valid instruments to estimate food consumption; for this purpose, the triads method has been applied in validation studies of dietary intake to evaluate the correlation between three measurements [food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), reference method and biomarker]. The main aim of the present study was to validate a FFQ for Brazilian adults by means of the method of triads by estimating the ingestion of total fatty acids based on the level of saturation.
Methods: The present study enrolled 152 Brazilian adults of both sexes, who were residents in the city of Vicosa, Brazil. The ingestion of total saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids was assessed by means of a FFQ, two food records, and biomarkers, which were detected by gas chromatography. The validation coefficients were calculated using the method of triads and concordance was determined by Kappa statistics.
Results: The FFQ was considered an adequate dietary method, because, based on the validation coefficients, it estimates the intake of total fat (0.84), as well as linolenic (0.90) and linoleic acids (0.31). A high concordance rate was confirmed for all nutrients assessed by the FFQ and food records. Regarding the biomarkers, linolenic acid and linoleic acid presented greater concordance.
Conclusions: According to the validation coefficients, the FFQ precisely estimated total fat, linolenic acid and linoleic acid contents.

Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in brazilian children, regardless of body fat distribution

Luana Cupertino Milagres, Naruna Pereira Rocha, Mariana de Santis Filgueiras, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Ana Paula Pereira Castro, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Juliana Farias de Novaes

Public Health Nutrition, v.2017, p.1-9
Impact Factor: 2,326

Abstract:
Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors, controlled by adiposity, in a representative sample of prepubescent children.
Design: Cross-sectional population-based study. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were performed. Laboratory analyses were performed to determine the levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyitamin D; 25(OH)D), glucose, insulin, serum lipids and intact parathyroid hormone. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24 h recalls.
Setting: Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2015.
Subjects: Representative sample of 378 children aged 8 and 9 years from urban schools.
Results: Inadequate serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were diagnosed in more than half of the children and none of them met the recommended vitamin D intake. After adjusting for confounding factors in the multiple regression analysis, lower prevalence of insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolaemia was found in children with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l (prevalence ratio=0·25; 95% CI 0·08, 0·85) and ≥50 nmol/l (prevalence ratio =0·61; 95% CI 0·37, 0·99), respectively. However, after adjusting for different indicators of adiposity, insulin resistance remained independently associated and the association with hypertriacylglycerolaemia was lost after adjusting for central adiposity. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was associated with the number of
cardiometabolic alterations in children.
Conclusions: The study results showed that prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was high among the children and insulin resistance was the main cardiometabolic alteration associated with this condition, even in a tropical climate country such as Brazil.

Waist-to-height ratio index or the prediction of overweight in children

Sarah Aparecida Vieira, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

Revista Paulista de Pediatria, v.2017, p.1-7
Impact Factor:

Abstract:
Objective: To identify a low-cost abdominal adiposity index that has a higher accuracy in predicting excess weight in children aged four to seven years old.
Methods: A cross-sectional study with a sample of 257 children aged 4 to 7 years old. Indicators of abdominal adiposity assessed were: waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and central fat percentage (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry – DEXA). Overweight children were classified using body mass index by age (BMI/age). In the analysis, the prevalence ratio (PR) using Poisson regression with a robust variance was estimated, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was built, with a statistical significance of p<0.05.
Results: The prevalence of overweight children was 24.9% and a higher median of all abdominal adiposity indicators was observed in the overweight group. Children with increased values of WC (PR=4.1; 95%CI 2.86–5.86), WHR (PR=5.76; 95%CI 4.14–8.02) and a central fat percentage (PR=2.48; 95%CI 1.65–3.73) had a higher prevalence of being overweight. Using the ROC curve analysis, the WHR index showed a higher area under the curve, when compared to the WC and to the central fat percentage estimated by DEXA for predicting the classification of being overweight.
Conclusions: Given the results, WHR is suggested for the screening of overweight children.


Address

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