Publications of 2023

A bioactive compound digested chia protein is capable of modulating NFκB mediated hepatic inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

Vinícius Parzanini Brilhante de São José, Mariana Grancieri, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food Research International, v. 2023
Impact factor: 8.1
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113740

Abstract: The consumption of diets high in saturated fat can induce damages in liver morphology and function, which leads to increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and hepatic steatosis. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is rich in protein, which provides bioactive peptides with potential benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Then, this study aimed to analyze the effect of digested total protein (DTP) of chia on inflammation, oxidative stress, and morphological changes in liver of C57BL/6 mice fed a diet rich in saturated fat. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 8/group), 8 weeks old, were fed standard diet (AIN), high-fat diet (HF), standard diet added digested protein (AIN + DTP) or high-fat diet added digested protein (HF + DTP) for 8 weeks. In animals fed a high-fat diet, chia DTP was able to reduce weight gain, food efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index. In addition, it presented antioxidant capacity, which reduced catalase activity and lipid peroxidation. DTP was also able to reduce hepatic inflammation by reducing p65-NFκB expression and IL-1β expression and quantification. The APSPPVLGPP peptide present in chia DTP presented binding capacity with PPAR-α, which contributed to the reduction of hepatic fat accumulation evidenced by histological analysis. Thus, chia DTP improved hepatic inflammatory and histological parameters, being an effective food in reducing the liver damage caused by a high-fat diet.

Acute effect of a beverage containing Brazil and cashew nuts on oxidative stress, lipemia, and blood pressure of women with cardiometabolic risk (Brazilian Nuts Study): a randomized clinical trial.

Dandara Baia Bonifácio, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Mirian Aparecida de Campos Costa, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff  Josefina Bressan
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolisme, v. 2023.
Impact factor: 3.4
DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2023-0049

Abstract: Nuts are important sources of antioxidants that combat oxidative stress and improve lipid profile as well as vascular function. However, the intake of typical Brazilian nuts and its acute effect on cardiovascular health needs to be better understood. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the acute effect of a beverage containing cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) on postprandial oxidative stress, lipemia, and blood pressure of adult women aged 20 to 55 years with cardiometabolic risk. This was an acute, randomized, parallel arm, controlled clinical trial. The participants received either a beverage containing nuts (30 g Brazil nuts + 15 g cashew nuts) or a beverage without nuts with similar macronutrient composition. Oxidative stress markers and lipid profiles were evaluated at fasting and 4 h after beverage consumption. Blood pressure was measured during fasting and after beverage intake (1, 2, 3, and 4 h). In the postprandial state, there was a greater reduction in malondialdehyde levels in the intervention group compared to the control group (-12.3 ± 0.59 vs. -10.7 ± 0.43 µmol/mL; p < 0.05), which was positively correlated with the concentrations of TG (r = 0.399; p < 0.05), VLDL (r = 0.399; p < 0.05), TG/HDL (r = 0.380; p < 0.05), and blood pressure (iAUC SBP r = 0.391; p < 0.05, iAUC DBP r = 0.409; p < 0.05). The remaining oxidative stress markers showed similar postprandial changes between groups. In women with cardiometabolic risk, a beverage containing Brazilian nuts promoted a significant acute reduction on postprandial malondialdehyde levels. The study was registered in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry-ReBEC (protocol: RBR-3ntxrm)

Animal Protein Intake Is Associated with Obesity Remission After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: an Isocaloric Replacement Analysis.

Darlene Larissa de Souza Vilela, Alessandra da Silva, Sônia Lopes Pinto, Josefina Bressan
Obesity Surgery, v.33, p.1382-1389.
Impact factor: 2.9
DOI: 10.1007/s11695-023-06539-w

Abstract: Purpose Some patients do not have the expected weight loss, and the post-surgical diet may partially explain these diferences. Objectives: To estimate the impact of macronutrient substitution on obesity remission after RYGB, considering the protein source. Materials and Methods: This study included 58 patients undergoing RYGB. Data collection was performed preoperatively, 3 and 12 months after surgery. Eight participants dropped out of the study at 3 months, and the others remained for 12 months. The foods consumed were registered using a 24-h, 3-day food recall. For the isocaloric substitution analysis, foods were classifed according to the protein source. The groups were compared using hypothesis tests, and Cox proportional hazard ratio regression was used to analyze isocaloric substitution. Results: At three months after surgery, every 5% energy from plant protein replaced by animal protein increased by 3.50 [CI1.204 — 10.205; p=0.021] the probability of obesity remission. Stratifed analysis by protein groups indicated that replacing vegetable protein with white meat was positively associated with remission of obesity. Every 5% vegetable protein replaced with white meat increased by 3.20 [CI 1.026 — 9.981; p=0.045] the probability of obesity remission. Both results were independent of age, body mass index (BMI), and the presence of comorbidities. Conclusion: The results suggest that the consumption of animal proteins after RYGB, mainly white meat, favors weight loss.

Anti-inflammatory pathways of kefir in murine model: a systematic review.

Mariana de Fátima Albuquerque Pereira, Fernanda Matias Albuini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Nutrition Reviews, v.81, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 6.1
DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuad052

Abstract: Context: Kefir consumption has been associated with immune response modulation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the role of kefir against inflammation and the main response mechanisms involved in this process in a murine model. Data Sources: The searches were searched in the PubMed, Science Direct, and LILACS databases. Only murine model studies, according to PRISMA guidelines, published in the past 10 years were included. Study Selection: Only articles about original and placebo-controlled experiments in murine models used to investigate the antiinflammatory mechanisms of kefir were considered. Of the articles found, 349 were excluded according to the following criteria: duplicate articles (n ¼ 99), off-topic title and abstract (n ¼ 157), reviews (n ¼ 47), studies in vitro (n¼ 29), and studies with humans (n ¼ 17). In total, 23 studies were included in this review. Data Extraction: Two independently working authors assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. Results: Kefir consumption had positive effects on inflammation modulation. The main mechanisms involved were the reduction of pro-inflammatory and molecular markers; reduction in inflammatory infiltrate in tissues, serum biomarkers, risk factors for chronic diseases, and parasitic infection; composition and metabolic activity change of intestinal microbiota and mycobiota; activation of humoral and cellular immunity; and modulation of oxidative stress. Conclusions: Kefir modulates the immune system in different experimental models, among other secondary outcomes, to improve overall health. The beverage reduces inflammation through the alternation between innate, Th1, and Th2 responses, reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing those of anti-inflammatory ones. In addition, it also mediates immunomodulatory and protective effects through the numerous molecular biomarkers and organic acids produced and secreted by kefir in the intestinal microbiota. The health-promoting effects attributed to kefir may help in the different treatments of inflammatory, chronic, and infectious diseases in the population

Applicability of machine learning techniques in food intake assessment: A systematic review.

Larissa Oliveira Chaves, Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos, Daniel Louzada Fernandes, Fábio Ribeiro Cerqueira, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista, Josefina Bressan
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v.63, p. 902-919.
Impact factor: 10.2
DOi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.195642

Abstract: The evaluation of food intake is important in scientific research and clinical practice to understand the relationship between diet and health conditions of an individual or a population. Large volumes of data are generated daily in the health sector. In this sense, Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools have been increasingly used, for example, the application of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to extract useful information, find patterns, and predict diseases. This systematic review aimed to identify studies that used ML algorithms to assess food intake in different populations. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases, and 36 studies met all criteria and were included. According to the results, there has been a growing interest in the use of ML algorithms in the area of nutrition in recent years. Also, supervised learning algorithms were the most used, and the most widely used method of nutritional assessment was the food frequency questionnaire. We observed a trend in using the data analysis programs, such as R and WEKA. The use of ML in nutrition is recent and challenging. Therefore, it is encouraged that more studies are carried out relating these themes for the development of food reeducation programs and public policies.

Association between total dietary antioxidant capacity and food groups and incidence of depression in a cohort of Brazilian graduates (CUME Project).

Gabriela Amorim Pereira, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Arieta Carla Gualandi Leal, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Josefina Bressan, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira, Aline Silva de Aguiar
British Journal of Nutrition, v. 2023, p.-12.
Impact factor: 3.6
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114523000181

Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the association between Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity (dTAC) and Total Antioxidant Capacity of food groups (fgTAC) with the incidence of depression in Brazilian graduates participating in the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Study). The sample consisted of 2572 participants without a medical diagnosis of depression at baseline who responded to at least one follow-up questionnaire from the CUME Project. The Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay was used to determine dTAC. Incidence of depression was estimated by self-reported medical diagnosis of depression during the years of cohort follow-up. Cox regression models were used to relate dTAC and fgTAC to the incidence of depression. The mean follow-up time was 2·96 (1·00) years, and 246 cases of depression were observed (32·3/1000 person-years). The mean dTAC was 11·03 (4·84) mmol/d. We found no associations between higher dTAC and lower risk of developing depression after adjusting for possible confounders. The incidence of depression was inversely associated with fgTAC of the beans and lentils group (hazard ratio (HR): 0·61; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·90). The fgTAC of the junk food group was positively associated with higher incidence of depression after all adjustments (HR: 1·57; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·26). Our findings do not support an association between dTAC and the incidence of depression in a highly educated Brazilian population. However, associations of fgTAC show the importance of analysing the food matrix in which these antioxidants are inserted. We highlight the need for more prospective studies with different nationalities to confirm these results.

Associations of adiposity and adipokine concentrations with anti- and oxidative markers in Brazilian children.

Juliana Farias de Novaes, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Lara Gomes Suhett, Mariane Alves Silva, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Érica Priulli, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Nutrition, v.109, p. 1-7.
Impact factor: 4.4
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2023.111993

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body fat, anti- and inflammatory adipokines with anti- and oxidative markers. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 378 schoolchildren ages 8 to 9 y in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We obtained information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics via questionnaires, measured height and weight, and estimated body fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood sample was collected to analyze the adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, chemerin, and retinol-binding protein 4) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the sandwich principle; and anti- and oxidant markers (plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and malondialdehyde [MDA]) by enzymatic methods. Concentrations of anti- and oxidant markers were compared by percent body fat quartiles and adipokine concentrations terciles using of linear regression adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Total and central body fat were positively associated with FRAP. Every 1 standard deviation (SD) of total fat was associated with 4.8 higher FRAP (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7–7). Additionally, every 1 SD of truncal, android, and gynoid fat were associated with, respectively, 5, 4.6, and 4.6 higher FRAP (95% CI, 2.9–7.1; 2.6–6.7; and 2.4–6.8, respectively). However, adiponectin was inversely associated with FRAP; every adiponectin SD was related to –2.2 lower FRAP (95% CI, –3.9 to –0.5). Chemerin was positively associated with SOD [5.4 (95% CI, 1.9–8.8) SOD units per chemerin SD]. Conclusions: The body fat measures and adiposity-related inflammation (chemerin) were positively associated with antioxidative markers in children, whereas the adiponectin (anti-inflammatory marker) was inversely associated with FRAP (antioxidative marker).

Body Fat Is Superior to Body Mass Index in Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents.

Núbia de Souza de Morais, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Ariane Ribeiro de Freitas Rocha, Dayane de Castro Morais, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v.20, p.1-11.
Impact factor: 4.614
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20032074

Abstract: Background: Excess adiposity is one of the main risk factors for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare cardiometabolic risk factors in eutrophic adolescents with a high body fat percentage (%BF) with eutrophic adolescents with adequate %BF and those with excess weight and %BF. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1043 adolescents. This study presented power equal to 99.75%. Body fat and anthropometric, clinical and biochemical indicators were evaluated. Participants were grouped according to body composition classified by body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage. Statistical analyses were performed using R software version 4.0.2, adopting a significance level of 5%. The Mann–Whitney test, principal components analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: It was observed that the SG was more similar to GC2 than to GC1 for both sexes, demonstrating that there was a greater similarity between these groups in relation to the evaluated factors. Higher values for TC, SBP and TG were associated with the SG when the CG1 was used as reference, controlled for sex and age. Likewise, higher TC values and lower levels of SBP, TG and LDL were related to SG when the CG2 was used as reference. Conclusion: Body fat assessment is more effective in predicting risk factors and cardiometabolic diseases than BMI alone.

Central adiposity as a predictor of mortality in older adults: Identification of cutoffs using generalized additive models.

Dalila Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Aline Araújo Nobre, Ângela Maria Natal de Souza, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Frontiers in Nutrition, v.10, p.
Impact factor: 5.0
DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1132006

Abstract: Background: Obesity is associated with premature mortality in adults; however, this association has been inconsistent in the older adult population. In addition, there is a lack of specific cutoff points for indicators of negative health outcomes in older adults. Methods: This is a prospective study with 796 non-institutionalized older adults. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, food consumption, and nutritional status were obtained at baseline. Generalized additive models were used to identify cutoff points for the waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the independent association between adiposity and mortality. Results: Over the 9 years of follow-up, 197 deaths (24.7%) occurred, of which 51.8% were men, with a mean age of 76.1 ± 9.0 years. Older adults at higher risk of death had WHtR of <0.52 or ≥0.63 and WC of <83 cm or ≥101 cm. An increased risk of death was observed in older adults with high WC (HR: 2.03 95% CI: 1.20–3.41) and high WHtR (HR: 1.51 95% CI: 1.01–2.26) in the adjusted models, and an increase in WC was a risk factor for higher CVD mortality (HR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.12–3.88) in the adjusted models. Conclusion: Adiposity was associated with an increased risk of death in older adults. In view of these results and considering the lack of cutoff points for anthropometric indices in Brazilian older adults, further studies are needed to confirm the WC and WHtR cutoff values found in this study.

Characteristics of the obesogenic environment around schools are associated with body fat and low-grade inflammation in Brazilian children

Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Josefina Bressan, Aline Siqueira Fogal Vegi, Ariene Silva do Carmo, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Danielle Soares Gardone, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2023, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 3.2
DOI: 10.1017/S1368980023001696

Abstract: Objective: To assess the association of obesogenic environmental characteristics around schools with body adiposity and adipokine concentrations in Brazilian children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Body adiposity was assessed using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and chemerin were measured. Predominantly ultra-processed food (UPF) stores, public physical activity (PA) facilities, green spaces, walkability, traffic accidents and crime were evaluated. The neighbourhood unit was the 400 m (0·25 miles) road network buffer around schools. The association of environmental characteristics with body adiposity and adipokine concentrations was assessed by linear regression models using generalised estimating equations. Setting: Urban schools (n 24), Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Participants: Children aged 8 and 9 years (n 378). Results: A higher density of predominantly UPF stores and a lower percentage of green space were associated with higher total (β: 0·12; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·18 and β: –0·10; 95 % CI –0·16, –0·04, respectively) and android body fat (β: 0·28; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·43 and β: –0·18; 95 % CI –0·32, –0·04, respectively). In addition, the densities of PA facilities and crime were inversely associated with leptin concentrations. Traffic accidents density and percentage of green spaces around schools had, respectively, a positive and an inverse association with concentrations of adiponectin and RBP4. Conclusions: Obesogenic environmental characteristics around schools were associated with total and android body fat, as well as with pro-inflammatory adipokine concentrations in Brazilian children from a medium-sized city.

Chemical composition, minerals concentration, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity in organic and conventional vegetables.

Daniele Pinto de Lima, Ezio dos Santos Pinto Júnior, Anely Vieira de Menezes, Daniel Alves de Souza, Vinícius Parzanini Brilhante de São José, Barbara Pereira da Silva, André Quintão de Almeida, Izabela Maria Montezano de Carvalho
Food Research International, v. 174, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 8,1
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113684

Abstract: The demand for organic vegetables is increasing worldwide, which has led to the growth of organic agriculture. However, information on chemical composition and antioxidant activity in vegetables grown organically under controlled conditions remains uncertain. For this study, 3 vegetables widely consumed in Brazil were cultivated in controlled organic and conventional cultivation systems: lettuce, coriander and tomato. Their chemical composition, mineral concentration, phenolic compound content, flavonoids and antioxidant activity (AA) were evaluated. The analyses of chemical and mineral composition revealed differences between the cultivation systems. Organic lettuce presented higher content of ashes, calcium and potassium. A higher content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids was observed in most organic vegetables. Using the 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the organic tomato exhibited higher AA compared to conventional, while the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method showed higher AA for organic coriander and tomato than theirs conventional version. The correlation between bioactive compounds and AA was positive, higher and stronger for organic vegetables, considering phenolic compounds (including flavonoids) and DPPH or FRAP antioxidant activity. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) disclosed that organic lettuce and coriander were grouped according bioactive components. In general, organic vegetables showed better results for bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity

Chia flour combined with a high fat diet increases propionic acid production and improves the microbial richness and diversity in female Wistar rats.

Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Mariana Juste Contin Gomes, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Roberta Ribeiro Silva Barra, Elad Tako (participante externo), Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food & Function, v. 2023, P. 7457-7468.
Impact factor: 6.1
DOI: 10.1039/D3FO01764H

Abstract: Chia is a functional food because of its positive impact on reducing the risk of metabolic diseases. These benefits are due to its nutritional composition as a source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. In our previous study, chia consumption increased the richness of the microbiota and the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) when consumed by male Wistar rats, so, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of the consumption of chia with a high fat diet on gut health in female Wistar rats. 32 adult female Wistar rats were allocated into four groups and received one of the following diets: standard diet (SD), standard diet + chia (SDC), high fat diet (HFD) or high fat diet + chia (HFDC) for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, the intestinal microbiota, SCFA content, cecum content pH, immunoglobulin A (IgA) quantification and brush border membrane functionality were evaluated. There was no difference in the relative abundance of the gut microbiota, but chia consumption increased the microbial richness and diversity, increased the production of acetic and butyric acids in the SDC group and propionic acid in the HFD group, and decreased the pH of cecal content. The HFDC group demonstrated a lower IgA concentration compared to the HFD group. The SDC group increased SI and AP gene expression and decreased SGLT1 and PepT1 compared to the SD group. The consumption of chia can be beneficial for the functionality of the microbiota, improving SCFAs and intestinal pH, and the effects of chia in the microbiota can be more pronounced in HFD.

Chia Phenolic Extract Appear to Improve Small Intestinal Functionality, Morphology, Bacterial Populations, and Inflammation Biomarkers In Vivo (Gallus gallus)

Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Nikolai Kolba, Nikita Garwal, Cydney Jackson, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Mariana Grancieri, Andressa de Assis, Vinícius Parzanini Brilhante de São José, Elad Tako
Nutrients, v. 15, p.1-15
Impact factor: 5.9
DOI: 10.3390/nu15163643

Abstract: Phenolic compounds can act as a substrate for colonic resident microbiota. Once the metabolites are absorbed and distributed throughout the body, they can have diverse effects on the gut. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the intra-amniotic administration of a chia phenolic extract on intestinal inflammation, intestinal barrier, brush border membrane functionality, intestinal microbiota, and morphology in vivo (Gallus gallus model). Cornish-cross fertile broiler eggs, at 17 days of embryonic incubation, were separated into groups as follows: non-injected (NI; this group did not receive an injection); 18 MΩ H2O (H2O; injected with ultrapure water), and 10 mg/mL (1%) chia phenolic extract (CPE; injected with phenolic extract diluted in ultrapure water). Immediately after hatch (21 days), chickens were euthanized and their small intestine, cecum, and cecum content were collected and analyzed. The chia phenolic extract reduced the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and increased the sucrose isomaltase (SI) gene expression, reduced the Bifidobacterium and E. coli populations, reduced the Paneth cell diameter, increased depth crypt, and maintained villus height compared to the non-injected control group. Chia phenolic extract may be a promising beneficial compound for improving intestinal health, demonstrating positive changes in intestinal inflammation, functionality, microbiota, and morphology.

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour modulates the intestinal microbiota in Wistar rats fed a high-fat and high-fructose diet.

Violeta Nunes de Morais, Mariana Juste Contin Gomes, Mariana Grancieri, Luiza de Paula Dias Moreira, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Barbara Pereira da Silva, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food Research International, v. 172, p.1-11.
Impact factor: 8.1
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113095

Abstract: A diet rich in sugar and fat can promote metabolic disorders development, especially in the intestine. Chia flour (Salvia hispanica. L) is a source of dietary fiber, alpha-linolenic fatty acid (ALA), bioactive peptides, and phenolics, promoting health benefits. This study aimed to analyze chia flour’s effect on gut microbiota modulation and intestinal health in adult male Wistar rats fed a high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Male Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were fed the diets standard (AIN-93M) or HFHF (31% saturated fat and 20% fructose) in the first phase to induce metabolic disorders. In the second phase, the rats were fed AIN-93M, HFHF, or HFHF plus 14.7% chia flour (HFHF + CF) for 10 weeks. The consumption of chia flour increased the ALA (3.24 ± 0.24) intake and significantly improved immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels (1126.00 ± 145.90), goblet cells number (24.57 ± 2.76), crypt thickness (34.37 ± 5.86), crypt depth (215.30 ± 23.19), the longitudinal muscle layer (48.11 ± 5.04), cecum weight (4.39 ± 0.71), Shannon index (p < 0.05), and significantly increased the production of acetic (20.56 ± 4.10) and butyric acids (5.96 ± 1.50), Monoglobus sp., Lachnospiraceae sp., and Prevotellaceae sp. abundance. Furthermore, chia significantly reduced the cecal pH content (7.54 ± 1.17), body mass index (0.62 ± 0.03) and weight (411.00 ± 28.58), and Simpson index (p < 0.05). Therefore, chia intake improved intestinal health parameters and functionality in rats with metabolic disorders, which demonstrates to be an effective strategy for gut microbiota modulation.

Community food environment and childhood obesity in a medium-sized Brazilian city: An approach to school and neighborhood environments.

Danielle Soares Gardone, Juliana Farias Novaes, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Taiane Gonçalves Novaes, Larissa Loures Mendes, Milene Cristine Pessoa
American Journal of Human Biology,v. 2023 .
Impact factor: 2.9
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23935

Abstract: Objective: We aimed to analyze the relationship of community food environments with childhood obesity in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 366 schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Children’s body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high cholesterol density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low cholesterol density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG) were measured. The parent’s nutritional status was assessed by calculating the BMI. All food stores within a 200- and 400-m radius buffers of schools and households were evaluated. The food stores were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and mixed according to the predominance of foods commercialized. Binary logistic regression models were proposed for each category. Results: Over seventy percent (70.2%) of the food stores were categorized as “unhealthy”. The prevalence of obesity was 15.6%. In the 200-m buffer around schools, there was an inverse and direct association between obesity and the presence of healthy food stores and unhealthy food stores, respectively. Around the households, there was an inverse association between the presence of healthy food stores and obesity in both buffers. Conclusion: The community food environment may be protective or potentiating childhood obesity, depending on the access and types of food sold.

Consumption of extruded sorghum SC319 improved gut microbiota at level genus and reduced anthropometric markers in men with overweight: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Haira Guedes Lúcio, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Barbara Pereira da Silva, Alessandra da Silva, Valéria Queiroz Ribeiro, Carlos de Carvalho Piller, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino
Nutrients, v.15, p.3786-3802
Fator de impacto: 5.9
DOI: 10.3390/nu15173786

Resumo: Background: Sorghum is a cereal source of energy, carbohydrates, resistant starch, proanthocyanidins, and 3-deoxyanthocyanins; it promotes satiety by slowing digestion and benefits intestinal health. Objective: This study investigated the effects of extruded sorghum SC319 consumption on intestinal health, weight loss, and inflammatory markers in men with overweight. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Twenty-one men were randomly allocated into one of two groups: the sorghum group (test), which received 40 g of extruded SC319 whole sorghum (n = 10), or the wheat group (control), which received 38 g of extruded whole wheat (n = 11) for eight weeks. Results: The sorghum consumption increased the weight loss intragroup, decreased the body fat percentage intergroup, and did not change inflammatory markers, while the wheat group had increased IL-6 levels compared to baseline. Short-chain fatty acid production, fecal pH, and α and β diversity indexes did not differ intra- and intergroup after interventions. However, sorghum consumption decreased genus levels of Clostridium_sensu_stricto 1, Dorea, and Odoribacter and increased CAG-873 and Turicibacter compared to baseline. Further, sorghum showed a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease the proteobacteria phyla compared to wheat. Conclusion: Extruded sorghum SC319 improved intestinal microbiota and body composition and promoted weight loss, demonstrating its prebiotic potential.

Consumption of sweetened beverages is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Brazilian adults (CUME project).

João Pedro Viana Dias, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Paulo de Souza Costa Sobrinho, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Josefina Bressan, Luciana Neri Nobre
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, v.33, p. 789-796
Impact factor: 3.9

Abstract: Abstract Background and aim: To evaluate the association between the energy consumption of
sweetened beverages (SBs) adjusted for daily energy intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: This was a prospective study with 2480 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-free Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME) participants at baseline and 2e4 years of follow-up. A longitudinal analysis was performed with generalized equation estimation to verify the effect of SB consumption, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, on the incidence of T2DM. The incidence of T2DM was 2.78%. The median calorie intake of daily SB consumption adjusted for energy was 47.7 kcal/day. Participants with the highest consumption of SBs (47.7 kcal/day) were 63% (odds ratio [OR] Z 1.63; p value-0.049) more likely to acquire T2DM over time compared to the lowest consumption (<47.7 kcal/day). Conclusions: Higher energy consumption from SBs favored a higher incidence of T2DM among
CUME participants. The results reinforce the need for marketing restrictions on these foods and taxation to reduce the consumption of these beverages to prevent T2DM and other chronic noncommunicable diseases.

Consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and their association with cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilians with established cardiovascular events.

Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Alessandra da Silva, Aline Marcadentib, Angela Cristine Bersch-Ferreirab, Bernardete Weberband, Josefina Bressan
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v. 74, p. 107–119.
Impact factor: 3.9
DOI: 0.1080/09637486.2023.2164922

Abstract: Consumption of food in its natural form has an inverse relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors; however, the relationship between consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and the presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remains unclear in individuals receiving secondary care for CVD. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and the presence of CVD and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with established CVD. Baseline data from 2357 participants in a Brazilian multicentre study showed that the consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to most of the daily caloric intake (69.3%). Furthermore, regression analyses showed that higher consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods (>78.0% of caloric intake) was associated with a lower prevalence of elevated waist circumference (WC1; PR: 0.889; CI: 0.822–0.961; WC2; PR: 0.914; CI: 0.873–0.957) and overweight (PR: 0.930; CI: 0.870–0.994), but also was associated with simultaneous occurrence of coronary and peripheral artery disease and stroke (OR: 2.802; CI: 1.241–6.325) when compared with a lower intake (<62.8% of caloric intake). These findings reinforce the importance of nutritional guidance that considers the profile of the target population and the composition and quality of the meals consumed.

Consumption of yacon flour and energy-restricted diet increased the relative abundance of intestinal bacteria in obese adults.

Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Tomas Gomes Veloso, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Nélia Pinheiro Mendes, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology,v. 2023, p. 1- 15.
Impact factor: 2.2
DOI: 10.1007/s42770-023-01140-w

Abstract: Prebiotics can alter the gastrointestinal environment, favoring the growth of health-promoting bacteria. Although yacon is a functional food, with prebiotic properties (fructooligosaccharides), its effects on the intestinal microbiota have not been investigated yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of yacon flour consumption and energy-restricted diet in the intestinal microbiota in adults with excess body weight. Twenty-one adults with excess body weight were included in this randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical trial. Subjects daily consumed at breakfast a drink containing 25 g of yacon flour (n = 11) or not containing yacon (n = 10) and received the prescription of energy-restricted diets. Fecal samples were collected on the first and on last day of the study. 16S rRNA sequencing was assessed to evaluate the effect of yacon fermentation on intestinal microbiota bacterial composition. There was an increase in the genera Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Subdoligranulum, and Streptococcus after the consumption of yacon and energy-restricted diet. In the yacon group, we also observed a positive correlation between the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids versus the genera Coprococcus and Howardella, besides a negative correlation between the concentrations of advanced glycation end products and early glycation products versus the genera Ruminococcus and Prevotella, respectively. Consumption of yacon flour and energy-restricted diet selectively changed the intestinal microbiota composition in adults with excess body weight. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Register number: RBR-6YH6BQ. Registered 23 January, 2018.

COVID-19 pandemic and comfort food consumption based on gender in a Brazilian sample: which variables are related to this behavior?

Tamires Cássia de Melo Souza, Lucilene Rezende Anastácio, Lívya Alves Oliveira, Marina Martins Daniel, Fernanda Rodrigues de Oliveira Penafort, Juliana Costa Liboredo, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Lívia Garcia Ferreira
Nutrition & Food Science, v. 2023, p.1-24.
Impact factor: 1.2
DOI: 10.1108/NFS-12-2022-0391

Abstract: Purpose: This study aims to identify comfort food (CF) consumption and its associated factors during the pandemic period. The study also involves an online survey conducted five months after the quarantine started in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach: Data on lifestyle, eating habits and anthropometric data were collected before and during the pandemic, and the differences in these habits were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to identify predictors of CF consumption by gender. Findings: A total of 1,363 individuals were included in the sample, with a median age of 31 years old, of whom 80.3% were women. Since individuals were free to respond about the food consumed without predetermined categories, it was possible to carry out a faithful assessment of the occurrence of this behavior. At the same time, allowing the subjectivity and symbolism inherent to the concept of CF to be embraced. CF consumption was present for 54%, with “sweets” being the most mentioned group by both genders. The factors associated with CF consumption in women during the pandemic were increased snacking, increased bread, candies and alcoholic beverage intake, increased time spent at work, worsened sleep quality, reduced meals, perceived stress (PS), emotional eating (EE), age and increased frequency of meat intake. In men, the predictors for CF consumption were remote full-time work/study, PS, EE and early waking time. For both genders, CF consumption during the pandemic period was associated with PS and EE. Originality/value: This study provides an important overview of the possible contributions of the pandemic on behaviors and food choices related to the consumption of CF in Brazilians. This information is valuable to support further studies to investigate and treat the impacts of the pandemic on lifestyle, eating habits and behavior, mental health and other factors in the postpandemic period.

Digestibility and quality of edible insect proteins: a systematic review of in vivo studies.

Lyvia Alves Oliveira, Kelly Aparecida Dias, Stephanie Michelin Santana Pereira, Laura Celia de Oliveira Souza Vicente, Michele Lilian da Silveira Barnabé, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, v. 2023, p. 1-12.
Impact factor: 5.1
DOI: 10.3920/JIFF2022.0172

Abstract: Edible insects are being considered as a potential sustainable food source to address global food security concerns and feed the world’s growing population. However, the quality and biological protein value of insects remain uncertain. This review analysed in vivo studies that evaluated edible insect consumption to clarify their potential as a high-quality protein source. Ten studies that evaluated protein quality in rats or mice were included, and most studies found weight gain similar to or greater than the control group. Food intake, net protein ratio, and biological value were also similar to those in the control group. However, true digestibility and protein efficiency ratio were generally lower in animals fed with insects, and higher nitrogen excretion was observed. The results of this systematic review were highly heterogeneous, and it cannot be concluded that insects have high protein quality, although positive results regarding weight gain and biological value were found.

Dry heat whole Sorghum BRS 305 flour modulate satiety and improves antioxidant response in brain of Wistar rats fed with high-fat high-fructose diet.

Haira Guedes Lúcio, Mariana Grancieri, Oscar David Medina Martinez, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Cícero Beserra de Menezes, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food Research International, v. 173, p. 1-12.
Impact factor: 8.1
DOI: 0.1016/j.foodres.2023.113252

Abstract: Sorghum BRS 305 (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a cereal with high tannins and anthocyanins content and keep better the resistant starch when submitted to dry heat treatment. Our objective was to investigate the effects of BRS 305 dry heat treatment whole sorghum flour on satiety and antioxidant response in brain and adipose tissue of Wistar rats fed with a high fat high fructose diet (HFHF). Male Wistar rats were divided in two groups: control (n = 8) and HFHF (n = 16) for eight weeks. After, animals of HFHF group were divided: HFHF (n = 8) and HFHF + BRS 305 sorghum whole flour (n = 8), for 10 weeks. Sorghum consumption reduced gene expression of leptin, resistin, and endocannabinoid receptor 1 type (CB1) in adipose and brain tissues compared to HFHF group. In brain, sorghum consumption also promotes reduction in neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression. BRS305 sorghum consumption improved gene expression of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in adipose tissue, and in the brain increased heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), erythroid-derived nuclear factor 2 (NRF2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity compared to HFHF. In silico analysis showed interaction with PPARα, CB1, and leptin receptors. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) concentrations in group HFHF + sorghum did not differ from HFHF group. Advanced glycation end products receptors (RAGEs) concentrations did not differ among experimental groups. Then, BRS 305 sorghum submitted to dry treatment was able to modulate gene expression of markers related to satiety and improve antioxidant capacity of rats fed with HFHF diet.

Eating behavior, physical activity and issues related to the mental health of adolescents from an Application College, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ariane Ribeiro de Freitas Rocha, Jessica Aparecida da Silva, Núbia de Souza de Morais, Patrícia Seixas Lopes Pereira, Emanuelle Valadaresde Jesus Acácio, Roberta Costa Lima de Oliveira, Geovanna Rafaela Lourenço Faria, Rayane Sibéria Souza Silva, Silva Eloiza Priore
Revista ELO – Diálogos em Extensão, v.12, p. 1-13.
DOI: 10.21284/elo.v12i.15760

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the eating behavior, satisfaction with body weight and issues related to the mentalhealth of students from a College of Application of a federal university, before and during the pandemic. A semi-structuredonline questionnaire was applied via Google Forms, containing information on eating habits and behaviors, satisfactionwith body weight, physical activity and issues related to mental health, before and during the period of the COVID-19pandemic. We evaluated 88 students, 54.5% female, with a median age of 16.5 years. During the critical scenario imposedby the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there were positive changes in the adolescents’ eating habits and in the pattern of physicalactivity, mainly because they were living with their parents, however, important negative impacts on mental health wereobserved.

Effect of carotenoids on gut health and inflammatory status: A systematic review of in vivo animal studies.

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Josefina Bressan, Elad Tako
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 63, p.1-16.
Impact factor: 11.2
DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2023.2234025

Abstract: Carotenoids have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, being a potential bioactive compound for gut health. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of carotenoids on gut microbiota, gut barrier, and inflammation in healthy animals. The systematic search from PubMed, Scopus, and Lilacs databases were performed up to March 2023. The final screening included thirty studies, with different animal models (mice, rats, pigs, chicks, drosophila, fish, and shrimp), and different carotenoid sources (β-carotene, lycopene, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, and fucoxanthin). The results suggested that carotenoids seem to act on gut microbiota by promoting beneficial effects on intestinal bacteria related to both inflammation and SCFA production; increase tight junction proteins expression, important for reducing intestinal permeability; increase the mucins expression, important in protecting against pathogens and toxins; improve morphological parameters important for digestion and absorption of nutrients; and reduce pro-inflammatory and increase anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, different carotenoids had distinct effects on gut health. In addition, there was heterogeneity between studies regarding animal model, duration of intervention, and doses used. This is the first systematic review to address the effects of carotenoids on gut health. Further studies are needed to better understand the effects of carotenoids on gut health.

Effect of food derived bioactive peptides on gut health and inflammatory mediators in vivo: a systematic review.

Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Elad Tako
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,v. 13, p.1-11.
Impact factor: 10.2
DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2023.2245469

Abstract: Dietary proteins serve as sources of exogenous peptides, after being released from the protein and absorbed, the bioactive peptides can perform several functions in the body. The objective of the current systematic review is to answer the question “How does food derived bioactive peptides can impact on gut health and inflammatory mediators in vivo?” The search was performed at PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases for experimental studies, and the risk of bias was assessed by the SYRCLE tool. The data analysis was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. Eleven studies performed in animal models evaluating bioactive peptides derived from animal and plant sources were included and evaluated for limitations in heterogeneity, methodologies, absence of information regarding the allocation process, and investigators’ blinding. The bioactive peptides demonstrated potential positive effects on inflammation and gut health. The main results identified were a reduction in TNF-α, NF-κB, and TLR4, an improvement in IgA production and in intestinal morphology, with an increase in villi surface area and goblet cell diameter, and Shannon and Simpson indexes were also increased. However, more in vivo studies are still necessary to better elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms by which peptides regulate gut health. PROSPERO (CRD42023416680).

Effects of grape juice consumption on oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle fatigue in practitioners of physical activity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Dandara Baia Bonifácio, Leonara Martins Viana, Alessandra da Silva, Danúbia Joanes Rosa Guerra, Caroline Woelffel Silva, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros, Josefina Bressan
Food Reviews International, v. 39, p. 1-19
Impact factor: 5.8
DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2023.2278844

Abstract: The effects of grape juice consumption on oxidative stress, inflammation, physical performance, muscle damage, and recovery in physical activity practitioners were evaluated in clinical studies. However, to date, no studies have gathered these findings. Thus, we aimed to review all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of grape juice consumption on these markers. The searched databases were MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase®, and Cochrane Central, considering an exhaustive search in the literature with keywords uva OR vitis. The PRISMA guideline was used to conduct and report the review. Seven RCTs with athletes (n = 3), recreational sportspeople (n = 3), and low-intensity physical activity practitioners (n = 1) were included. The qualitative results of the individual studies were controversial, and according to the meta-analysis, acute or chronic consumption of 10/ml/kg/day or 400 ml of grape juice improved antioxidant status but had no effects on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, physical performance, muscle damage and recovery in physical activity practitioners.

Effects of Intra-Amniotic Administration of the Hydrolyzed Protein of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei on Intestinal Functionality, Morphology, and Bacterial Populations, In Vivo (Gallus gallus)

Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Nikolai Kolba, Drashti Dhirenkumar Shah,
Mariana Grancieri, Karina Maria Olbrich dos Santos, Janine Passos Lima, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia, Elad Tako
Nutrients, v.15, p.1831-1847.
Impact factor: 5.9
DOI: 10.3390/nu15081831

Abstract: As a protein source, chia contains high concentrations of bioactive peptides. Probiotics support a healthy digestive tract and immune system. Our study evaluated the effects of the intra-amniotic administration of the hydrolyzed chia protein and the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus paracasei on intestinal bacterial populations, the intestinal barrier, the inflammatory response, and brush border membrane functionality in ovo (Gallus gallus). Fertile broiler (Gallus gallus) eggs (n = 9/group) were divided into 5 groups: (NI) non-injected; (H2O) 18 MΩ H2O; (CP) 10 mg/mL hydrolyzed chia protein; (CPP) 10 mg/mL hydrolyzed chia protein + 106 colony-forming unit (CFU) L. paracasei; (P) 106 CFU L. paracasei. The intra-amniotic administration was performed on day 17 of incubation. At hatching (day 21), the animals were euthanized, and the duodenum and cecum content were collected. The probiotic downregulated the gene expression of NF-κβ, increased Lactobacillus and E. coli, and reduced Clostridium populations. The hydrolyzed chia protein downregulated the gene expression of TNF-α, increased OCLN, MUC2, and aminopeptidase, reduced Bifidobacterium, and increased Lactobacillus. The three experimental groups improved in terms of intestinal morphology. The current results suggest that the intra-amniotic administration of the hydrolyzed chia protein or a probiotic promoted positive changes in terms of the intestinal inflammation, barrier, and morphology, improving intestinal health.

Effects of iodine supplementation on thyroid function parameter: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aline Carare Candido, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Débora Letícia Frizzi Silva, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, v. 80, p. 1-9.
Impact factor: 3.5
DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2023.127275

Abstract: Background: Supplementation is an alternative with potential benefits for the prevention of iodine deficiency in pregnancy. Objective: To evaluate the effects of iodine supplementation on maternal thyroid hormone concentrations and iodine status during and/or before pregnancy. Methods: The review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). The search was conducted in the databases: Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Studies involving pregnant women of all trimesters who received oral iodine supplementation were included. Study selection was performed in the Rayyan program. Risk of bias was assessed by the Joanna Briggs Institute tool. Meta-analysis was performed in R software version 4.0.4. Results: Eleven articles with low and moderate risk of bias were included. According to the results of the meta-analysis, supplementation of 200 μg/day of iodine was able to change urinary iodine concentration during pregnancy, thus contributing to adequate intake. When evaluating the period when the intervention started, the best time to start supplementation was prior to pregnancy or in early pregnancy. Conclusion: Daily iodine supplementation had satisfactory effects on iodine status and maternal thyroid hormone concentrations. Although supplementation with 200 µg showed positive effects on iodine status in pregnancy, some studies showed no effect. Prospero Registration: CRD42021249307 (

Effects of minimally and ultra-processed foods on blood pressure in brazilian adults: a two-year follow up of the cume Project.

Katiusse Rezende-Alves, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Aline Elizabeth da Silva Miranda, Josefina Bressan, Raquel de Deus Mendonça, Fernando Luiz Pereira de Oliveira, Adriano Marçal Pimenta
Journal of Hypertension, v. 41, p.122-131.
Impact factor: 4.9
DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003311

Abstract: Aim: To assess the association of food consumption according to degree of processing with changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in adult participants of a Brazilian cohort. Methods: Longitudinal study with 2496 adult participants of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project). Food consumption was categorized by food groups according to degree of processing following the NOVA grading system: unprocessed/minimally processed foods/culinary ingredients (U/MPF&CI), processed foods (PFs) and ultra-processed foods (UPFs). unprocessed/minimally processed foods/culinary ingredients (U/MPF&CI), processed foods (PFs) and ultra-processed foods (UPFs). Changes in SBP and DBP were categorized (decreased, maintained, increased). Independent associations between exposure and outcomes were verified using multiple generalized ordered logistic models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: After a two-year follow-up, the consumption of U/MPF&CI (% daily caloric intake) reduced the chance of increasing DBP (P for trend = 0.014), with a more evident effect among participants within the 5th quintile of this food group (odds ratio (OR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.97]. On the other hand, the consumption of UPFs (% daily caloric intake) raised the chance of increasing DBP (P for trend = 0.005) and was more evident among participants within the quintiles of higher consumption (4th quintile – OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.25-3.10; 5th quintile – OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.12-2.86). No associations were found between food consumption according to degree of processing and changes in SBP. Conclusion: Higher consumption of U/MPF&CI and UPFs were independently associated to lower and greater chances of increased DBP in adult participants from CUME Project.

Fat intake and high triglyceride-glucose index in individuals at cardiometabolic risk: an isocaloric substitution analyses.

Susilane Pereira Araújo, Alessandra da Silva, Josefina Bressan, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Journal of the American Nutrition Association, v. 42, p.452-458.
Impact factor: 3.571
DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2022.2064001

Abstract: Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) is a potential IR biomarker. Evidence also suggests that fat intake may modulate IR status, but this relationship remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the relationship between the TyG index and isocaloric replacement of macronutrients, including the profile of dietary fatty acids in individuals at cardiometabolic risk. Methods and results: This cross-sectional study enrolled 264 individuals at cardiometabolic risk (age 43.1 ± 16.3 years) who participated in a nutritional intervention study (ReBEC, id: RBR-5n4y2g). The baseline demographic, anthropometric, clinical, dietary, and lifestyle data were used. The TyG index was calculated using the formula ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Multivariate nutrient density models were used to analyze isocaloric replacement of fatty acids (as 5% of energy). The chance of having a high TyG index (TyG index >8.83, median value) was decreased by 60% after replacing 5% of the energy intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), and trans fatty acid (TFA) with monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) or PUFA and SFA with protein. Conclusion: Isocaloric replacement of PUFA, SFA, and TFA with MUFA and protein was associated with lower chances of having a high TyG index. These results indicate the importance of macronutrient and dietary fat profiles in the dietary planning of individuals at cardiometabolic risk.

Food consumption by degree of processing is associated with nocturnal dipping and blood pressure variability: The ELSA-Brasil study.

Jéssica Benatti Ribeiro, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Rosane Harter Griep, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol
NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, v. 33, p.1377-1388.
Impact factor: 3.9
DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2023.02.007

Abstract: Background and aims: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) allows the assessment of cardiovascular risk markers that cannot be obtained by casual measurements; however, the evidence on the association between food consumption and blood pressure (BP) assessed by ABPM is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption by degree of processing and ambulatory BP. Methods and results: Cross-sectional analysis (2012-2014) of data from a subsample (n = 815) of ELSA-Brasil cohort participants who performed 24-h ABPM was conducted. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means and variability during the 24 h and subperiods (sleep and wake), nocturnal dipping, and morning surge were evaluated. Food consumption was classified according to NOVA. Associations were tested by generalized linear models. The consumption of unprocessed, minimally processed foods, and culinary ingredients (U/MPF&CI) was 63.1% of daily caloric intake, 10.8% of processed (PF), and 24.8% of ultraprocessed (UPF). A negative association was found between U/MPF&CI consumption and extreme dipping (T2: odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55-0.58; T3: OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.54-0.57); and between UPF consumption and nondipping (T2: OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.55-0.85) and extreme dipping (T2: OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.61-0.65; T3: OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-0.99). There was a positive association between PF consumption and extreme dipping (T2: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.18-1.27; T3: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.29-1.39) and sleep SBP variability (T3: Coef = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.03-1.10). Conclusions: The high consumption of PF was associated with greater BP variability and extreme dipping, while the U/MPF&CI and UPF consumption were negatively associated with alterations in nocturnal dipping.

Food consumption, nutritional status and level of physical activity of older women practitioners of physical exercise

Amanda Karine da Silva, Dalila Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Isabella Antonia Soares da Silva, Miguel Araujo Carneiro-Júnior, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Revista Elo – Diálogos em Extensão, v. 12, p. 1-18.
DOI: 10.21284/elo.v12i.15594

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the food consumption of older women who practice physical exercise. The study is part of an extension project focused on physical activity for the older. In addition to the food consumption, were evaluated the level of physical activity, nutritional status and body adiposity of 45 women were assessed. The mean age of participants was 67.8 years (SD=6.04). A high percentage (57.8%) was overweight and 87.8% had high adiposity, indicating a risk of diseases associated with obesity. Inadequate consumption of monounsaturated fats, calcium and vitamin B6 was observed. The high frequencies of overweight, high adiposity and inadequacies in food consumption observed highlight the importance of nutritional interventions associated with the practice of physical activity, towards comprehensive care for the health ageing, for a better quality of life for this population.

Food insecurity and its socioeconomic and health determinants in pregnant women and mothers of children under 2 years of age, during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Francilene Maria Azevedo, Núbia de Souza de Morais, Debora Leticia Frizzi Silva, Aline Carare Candido, Dayane de Castro Morais, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschin
Frontiers in Public Health, v.11, p.1-11.
Impact factor: 5.2
DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1087955

Abstract: Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has reduced access to adequate food in terms of quality and quantity, especially for the most vulnerable population groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Food Insecurity and its main socioeconomic and health determinants in pregnant women and mothers of children under 2 years of age, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) and registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42021278033). The descriptors “Pregnant Woman”, “Postpartum Women”, “Breastfeeding Women”, “COVID-19”, “Food Insecurity”, “Food Security” were combined in Scopus (Elsevier), Medline/PubMed (via National Library of Medicine), Embase (Elsevier), Web of Science and Science Direct independently by two researchers in September 2022. Original articles about Food Insecurity in households with pregnant women and mothers of children under 2 years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. The meta-analysis of the prevalence of Food Insecurity was conducted using the RStudio software (4.0.4). Results: The initial search resulted in 539 records, and 10 articles met the proposed criteria and were included in this review. The prevalence of Food Insecurity ranged from 11.5 to 80.3% and in the meta-analysis it was 51% (IC: 30-71) (I 2 = 100.0%). The main socioeconomic and health determinants were ethnicity, domain language, low education, low income, informal employment, unemployment, occurrence of mental disorders, domestic violence, in addition to the unavailability of food in markets and lack of transport. The inclusion of studies with data collection by telephone stands out as a limitation, due to the non-inclusion of vulnerable groups without access to this means of communication. Conclusion: It is necessary to implement and strengthen specific public policies for the maternal and child group with the objective of protecting and strengthening the rights of women to maintain the physical and mental integrity of this group and guarantee Food Security

Food Insecurity and Micronutrient Deficiency in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sílvia Oliveira Lopes, Lívia Carvalho Sette Abrantes, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Núbia de Souza de Morais, Dayane de Castro Morais, Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno Fontes, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Nutrients, v. 15, p. 1074-1086.
Impact factor: 5.9
DOI: 10.3390/nu15051074

Abstract: Food insecurity is a public health problem as it affects a wide array of individuals in the population. It can be characterized by food deprivation, lack of essential nutrition, lack of dietary education, lack of adequate storage conditions, poor absorption, and poor overall nutrition. The relationship between food insecurity and micronutrient deficiency requires more effort to deepen and discuss the relationship. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between food insecurity and micronutrient deficiency in adults. The research was conducted according to PRISMA using the Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs/BVS, Embase, Web of Science, and Cinahl databases. Studies carried out with male and female adults were included, which investigated the correlation or association between food insecurity and the nutritional status of micronutrients. There were no publication year, country, or language restrictions. A total of 1148 articles were found, and 18 of these were included, carried out mainly on the American continent and with women. The most evaluated micronutrients were iron and vitamin A. Food insecurity was associated with nutrient deficiency in 89% (n = 16) of the studies. As a result of the meta-analysis, it was observed that there is a greater chance of anemia and low levels of ferritin among food insecure individuals. It is concluded that food insecurity is associated with micronutrient deficiency. Understanding these problems allows the creation of public policies capable of contributing to changes. Protocol registration: This review was registered on the PROSPERO-International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews database—CRD42021257443.

Germinated and non-germinated cooked whole millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) flours show a promising effect on protein quality, biochemical profile and intestinal health in vivo.

Thauana Lorena Silva Magalhães, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Mariana Grancieri, Haira Guedes Lúcio, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Roberta Ribeiro Silva Barra, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food & Function, v. 14, p.5678-5689.
Impact factor: 6.1
DOI:: 10.1039/d2fo02915d

Abstract: Millet is a promising cereal with high amounts of dietary fibre and protein, and in addition, bioactive compounds with health-promoting functional properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of germinated and cooked whole millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) on protein quality, biochemical profile and intestinal health in vivo. Thirty-two male Wistar rats (21 days old) were separated into four groups, which received a casein control diet (CC; n = 8), a free protein diet (aproteic; n = 8) and two treatment diets: non-germinated millet (NM; n = 8) and germinated millet (GM; n = 8) for 29 days. The whole millet flours presented an adequate essential amino acid profile, except for lysine. The GM group presented a higher protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio compared to the NM group. Weight gain, Lee index, and food efficiency ratio were lower in the treatment groups, compared to the control group. The GM group had lower plasma glucose, uric acid, cholesterol, and faecal pH compared to the other groups. The treatment groups presented lower triglyceride levels, higher levels of acetic and propionic acids, a larger thickness and depth of the colonic crypts, and a higher expression of PepT1 genes than the CC group. In conclusion, the millet flours demonstrated potential for controlling the lipid profile and biometric measurements. Additionally, the whole germinated millet flour provided better protein quality and improved intestinal morphology and functionality. These results indicate that the consumption of millet could be increased in human food, and considering its potential health benefits, it could be an alternative for dietary diversification, and germination is a good processing option.

Habitual polyphenol intake of foods according to NOVA classification: implications of ultra-processed foods intake (CUME study).

Hillary Nascimento Coletro, Josefina Bressan, Amanda Popolino Diniz, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Adriana Lúcia Meireles, Raquel de Deus Mendonça, Júlia Cristina Cardoso Carraro
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 74, p.338-349.
Impact factor: 3.9
DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2023.2190058

Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the intake of dietary total polyphenols and their classes according to NOVA classification among adults of a Brazilian cohort study. This is a cross-sectional study, in which food consumption was assessed using an Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and polyphenol content (total and their classes) was estimated at Phenol-Explorer for each food category and presented as mean and 95% confidence interval. Adjusted linear regression was used to describe the trend of the association between the quintiles of polyphenols intake (dependent variable) and NOVA group of food consumption (independent variable). The higher consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods is accompanied by a higher intake of total polyphenols and all their classes, while the higher consumption of ultra-processed foods represented the lower intake of total polyphenols and their classes. Fresh foods are the greatest sources of polyphenols, and their daily consumption should be encouraged, while ultra-processed foods are deficient in such bioactive compounds.

Higher atherogenic risk in schoolchildren is associated with rs2293855 gene polymorphism and genetic score.

Mariane Alves Silva, Cristina Maria Mendes Resende, Maíra Barros Louro, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez, Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez-Leite, Danielle Fernandes Durso, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Nutrition Bulletin, v. 2023.
Impact factor: 3.3
DOI: 10.1111/nbu.12644

Abstract: Childhood dyslipidaemia is associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, so evaluating whether an individual has a genetic predisposition to this pathology is of great importance for early action of prevention and treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and MTMR9 (rs2293855) polymorphisms, the obesity-related genetic risk score and atherogenic risk in Brazilian children. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 544 children aged 4–9 years in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609, rs17782313 and rs2293855, were identified by the system TaqMan SNP genotyping and the obesity-related genetic risk score was determined. The lipid profile (serum total cholesterol [TC], high density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, low density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, triglycerides) was analysed and the atherogenic indices (Castelli I and II indices), atherogenic coefficient (AC), lipoprotein combined index (LCI) and plasma atherogenic index (PAI) were calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied, obtaining data on the sociodemographic, economic and lifestyle characteristics of the children. Weight and height measurements were performed in all children, and body composition was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). 55.5% of the sample had dyslipidaemia, while 28.5% of the sample had at least one polymorphism and 2.2% had three polymorphisms. Children with the AG/AA genotypes in the rs2293855 polymorphism had lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher TC/HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios and AC. Those with one or more polymorphisms (rs9939609, rs17782313 and rs2293855) in the genetic risk score had lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher TC/HDL cholesterol ratios, AC, LCI and PAI. In conclusion, the risk allele of the rs2293855 polymorphism and a higher obesity-related genetic risk score were positively associated with higher atherogenic risk in Brazilian children.

Higher caffeine consumption is associated with insufficient sleep time in Brazilian adults (CUME study).

Carolynne Martins Teixeira, Josefina Bressan, Arieta Carla Gualandi Leal, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Helen Hermana Miranda Hemrsdorff
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v.31, p.1-9.
Impact factor: 3.9
DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2023.2267793

Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the association between caffeine intake and sleep time in Brazilian adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 6,356 participants from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Study). Data was collected through an online self-report questionnaire. Of the total, 31.9% of the participants had insufficient sleep. Women were found to sleep less than men (64.1 vs. 35.9%; p < 0.001), as well as being more likely to consume higher doses of caffeine (55.2%, p < 0.001). Coffee (35.7%), dark chocolate (25.2%), milk chocolate (15.2%), and diet soda (11.0%) were the foods that more contributed to caffeine intake. Individuals in the highest quartile of caffeine intake (87.0 - 572.0 mg/day) had a 19% higher prevalence of insufficient sleep compared with the lowest quartile (PR: 1.19; 95%CI: 1.08 - 1.31). Future studies are needed to investigate the genetic and hormonal factors involved in the interindividual response in this population.

Higher serum uric acid is associated with body fat, retinol-binding protein 4, and antioxidative status in Brazilian children.

Juliana Farias de Novaes, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Lara Gomes Suhett, Mariane Alves Silva, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Rafaela Mara Silva Fonseca, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Nutrition, v. 113, p.112079.
Impact factor: 4.4
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2023.112079

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum uric acid (SUA) with adiposity, adipokines, and anti- and oxidative markers in Brazilian children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional investigation with 378 children ages 8 to 9 y in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Information on sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained via questionnaires, and body fat was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We compared the distributions of adiposity (total and central), adipokines (adiponectin, chemerin, leptin, and retinol-binding protein 4 [RBP4]), anti- and oxidative markers (plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and malondialdehyde [MDA]) by SUA categories using linear regression. Results: SUA was positively associated with total and central fat. Every standard deviation (SD) of SUA was related, respectively, to a 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4–4.4), 4 (95% CI, 2.8–5.1), 4.2 (95% CI, 2.9–5.5), and 3.5 (95% CI, 2.4–4.6) units higher of total, truncal, android, and gynoid fat. We found a positive association of SUA with RBP4 and FRAP, and a negative association with MDA. Every SD of SUA was related, respectively, to 0.1 (95% CI, 0.01–0.1) and 7.8 (95% CI, 5.5–10.1) units higher of RBP4 and FRAP; and to –0.3 (95% CI, –0.5 to –0.1) units lower of MDA. Conclusions: SUA was positively associated with adiposity, RBP4, and antioxidative status in Brazilian children.

Household Salt Storage and Seasoning Consumption Are Predictors of Insufficient Iodine Status Among Pregnant Women in Southeastern Brazil.

Ana Carolina Momentti, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Ana Flávia de Sousa Silva, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Fernando Barbosa Júnior, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Anderson Marliere Navarro
Biological Trace Element Research, v. 201, p.5529-5539.
Impact factor: 3.9
DOI: 10.1007/s12011-023-03615-1.

Abstract: Iodine deficiency in pregnancy may lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including impaired child development. Sociodemographic factors and different dietary habits may be related to iodine status in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine status and its predictors among pregnant women in a city of Southeastern Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 266 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in 8 primary health care units. Sociodemographic, obstetric and health, habits of acquisition, storage and consumption of iodized salt, and dietary iodine intake data were collected through a questionnaire. The iodine content was evaluated in urinary iodine concentration (UIC), household salt and seasonings, and drinking water samples. Pregnant women were categorized into three groups according to the UIC, determined by iodine coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS): insufficient (< 150 μg/L), adequate (150-249 μg/L), and more than adequate iodine nutrition (≥ 250 μg/L). The median (p25-p75) UIC was 180.2 μg/L (112.8-262.7). It was found 38% and 27.8% of insufficient and more than adequate iodine nutrition, respectively. Number of gestations, KI content of supplement, alcohol consumption, salt storage, and frequency of using industrialized seasoning were associated to iodine status. Alcohol consumption (OR = 6.59; 95%CI 1.24-34.87), pack the salt in opened container (OR = 0.22; 95%CI 0.08-0.57), and use industrialized seasoning weekly (OR = 3.68; 95% CI 1.12-12.11) were predictors of iodine insufficiency. The pregnant women evaluated have adequate iodine nutrition. Household salt storage and seasoning consumption were risk factors for insufficient iodine status.

Impact of Ultra-Processed Food Consumption on Quality of Diet among Brazilian Pregnant Women Assisted in Primary Health Care.

Walkyria O. Paula, Vivian S. S. Gonçalves, Erika S. O. Patriota, Sylvia C. C. Franceschini, Nathalia Pizato
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 20, p. 1015-1027.
Impact factor: 4.614
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20021015

Abstract: The quality of diet and nutritional status during pregnancy are crucial to optimize maternal and fetal health. Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are increasingly prevalent in pregnancy groups despite being nutritionally unbalanced and associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study, conducted with data from 229 pregnant women, aimed to investigate the association between UPFs consumption and dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women assisted by Primary Health Care (PHC) in Federal District (DF), Brazil. Food consumption was assessed through two non-consecutive 24-h food records and categorized by the extent of processing using the NOVA classification. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the association between the quintiles of UPF consumption and the total energy and nutrients intake. Mean daily energy intake was 1741 kcal, with 22.6% derived from UPFs. Greater UPF consumption was associated with reduced intake of unprocessed and minimally processed food. The highest quintile of UPFs was positively associated with higher total energy, trans fat, and sodium intake; and inversely associated with the diet content of protein, fiber, iron, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc, selenium, and folate. Greater UPFs intake negatively impacts the nutritional quality of the diet and impoverishes the nutrient intake of pregnant women. Reducing UPF consumption may broadly improve dietary guidelines adherence in pregnant women and promote maternal and neonatal health.

Improving Pregnant Women’s Iodine Intake Estimates and Its Prevalence of Inadequacy through the Use of Salt and Seasoning Covariates.

Débora Letícia Frizzi Silva, Sandra Patrícia Crispim, Claudia C. B. Almeida, Vanessa Schrubbe, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Franciane Rocha de Faria, Nathalia Pizato, Renata Junqueira, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Nutrients, v. 15p.846-861.
Impact factor: 5.9
DOI: 10.3390/nu15040846

Abstract: Measuring usual iodine intake is a complex task due to the food consumption variability and its natural concentration in food. Therefore, the use of covariates to adjust statistical methods to estimate usual intake could improve the estimates obtained through dietary surveys. This study aims to evaluate the influence of salt and seasoning usage covariates on the estimates of usual iodine intake and the prevalence of its inadequacy. (2) A cross-sectional study was conducted with Brazilian pregnant women’s food consumption data obtained with 24-h recall (n = 2247). The usual iodine intake was adjusted for intraindividual variability, supplement use, temporal effects, data collection methods, and sociodemographic characteristics with the tool UCD/NCI SIMPLE in the SAS software. Then, salt and seasoning usage covariates were used to adjust the distribution. The harmonized intake reference values for populations were used to assess intake adequacy. (3) The adjustments for salt and seasoning usage yielded a higher mean of usual iodine intakes. The only exception was the adjustment for the “habit of adding salt to meals after preparing/cooking”, which produced a lower mean of usual intake and increased the prevalence of insufficient intake. (4) Salt and seasoning usage covariates affect the estimates evaluated. However, more studies are necessary to evaluate the influence observed.

Intra-Amniotic Administration of Cashew Nut ( Anacardium occidentale L.) Soluble Extract Improved Gut Functionality and Morphology In Vivo ( Gallus gallus).

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Nikolai Kolba (participante externo), Arundhati Misra, Ana Paula Dionísio, Ana Claudia Pelissari Kravchychyn, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Elad Tako
Nutrients, v. 15, p.2378-2394.
Impact factor: 5.9
DOI: 10.3390/nu15102378.

Abstract: Cashew nuts are rich in dietary fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids, catechins, amino acids, and minerals that offer benefits for health. However, the knowledge of its effect on gut health is lacking. In this way, cashew nut soluble extract (CNSE) was assessed in vivo via intra-amniotic administration in intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) morphology, functionality, and gut microbiota. Four groups were evaluated: (1) no injection (control); (2) H2O injection (control); (3) 10 mg/mL CNSE (1%); and (4) 50 mg/mL CNSE (5%). Results related to CNSE on duodenal morphological parameters showed higher Paneth cell numbers, goblet cell (GC) diameter in crypt and villi, depth crypt, mixed GC per villi, and villi surface area. Further, it decreased GC number and acid and neutral GC. In the gut microbiota, treatment with CNSE showed a lower abundance of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and E. coli. Further, in intestinal functionality, CNSE upregulated aminopeptidase (AP) gene expression at 5% compared to 1% CNSE. In conclusion, CNSE had beneficial effects on gut health by improving duodenal BBM functionality, as it upregulated AP gene expression, and by modifying morphological parameters ameliorating digestive and absorptive capacity. For intestinal microbiota, higher concentrations of CNSE or long-term intervention may be necessary.

Is “stay-at-home” synonymous of inactivity? Factors related to sedentary lifestyle in a Brazilian sample during COVID-19 initial quarantine.

Tamires Cássia de Melo Souza, Lívya Alves Oliveira, Juliana Costa Liboredo, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Lívia Garcia Ferreira, Marina Martins Daniel, Lucilene Rezende Anastácio
Nutrition & Food Science, v. 2023, p. 781-792.
Impact factor: 1.2
DOI: 10.1108/NFS-11-2022-0390

Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle (<150 min of physical exercise/week) and associated factors of this behavior in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach: An observational study was conducted through an online questionnaire in August–September 2020 (5.5 months after the beginning of the pandemic in the country). Socioeconomic, lifestyle, anthropometric, dietary and perceived stress data were evaluated as possible related factors to a sedentary lifestyle through multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 1,347 individuals were evaluated (median of 31 years old, 80.1% women), of whom 76.7% were considered sedentary. Associated factors to a sedentary lifestyle were being overweight; a greater difference between current weight and prepandemic weight; female sex; lower percentage of home-cooked meals; greater increase in the frequency of consumption of alcoholic beverages; higher frequency of consumption of cereals, sausages and sweets during the pandemic; and higher score of perceived stress. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no studies have aimed to reveal the associated factors to a sedentary lifestyle during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Protective factors against a sedentary lifestyle were eating breakfast, being a student, living with parents, a higher frequency of fruit consumption, a higher rate of alcohol consumption and a higher cognitive restriction of food intake during the pandemic. Most of the study participants were sedentary, especially women. A sedentary lifestyle was associated with worse lifestyle/eating habits and stress. Such findings encourage an interdisciplinary approach because habits and lifestyle have numerous interferences.

Labeling of food from family farming and promoting food and nutritional security.

Lara Carvalho Coelho, Nircia Isabella Andrade Pereira, Sílvia Oliveira Lopes, Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro, Bianca Aparecida Lima Costa, Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos, Sylvia do Carmo Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Rasbran, v. 13, p. 1-17.
DOI: 10.47320/rasbran.2022.2623

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the labeling of foods sold in accordance with current norms and legislation related to production and sale, aiming at their subsequent adaptation to the promotion of Food and Nutritional Safety of the population that consumes them. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with members who process food by hand and sell them at a Solidarity Economy and Family Farming fair located in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais. Socioeconomic, demographic and housing characterization of those responsible for the enterprises, analysis of the labels of the food sold and a semi-structured interview with the farmers were carried out in order to assess their perception of the importance of labeling. Results: The sample consisted of 11 enterprises. It was found that 63,3% (n=7) of the entrepreneurs were female, 45,4% (n=5) with a mean age of 43,9 years (± 8,78), 54,5% (n==6) had 3 to 5 residents in their residence and 27,3% (n=3) lived in poverty. In total, 72 products were analyzed, 12,5% (n=9) had labels with complete information, 47,2% (n=34) had incomplete information and 40,3% (n=29) had no labeling. With the aid of a semi-structured interview, a similarity analysis was carried out. Conclusion: The inclusion of complete labels on products processed by family farmers is important because it allows increasing sales to institutional markets, brings greater profitability to the family and favors the consumer with easy and clear access to complete information of what you are consuming.

Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12 Restores Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Health in Obesity Mice on Ceftriaxone Therapy.

Mariana de Moura e Dias, Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Lúcio Flávio Macedo Mota, Gabriela de Cássia Ávila Alpino, Sandra Aparecida dos Reis Louzano, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovanie, Solange Silveira Pereira, Leandro Licursi Oliveira, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Davide Porcellato, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Fodds, v.12, p.1-16.
Impact factor: 5.2
DOI: 10.3390/foods12051092

Abstract: Gut microbiota imbalance is associated with the occurrence of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Thus, its modulation is a promising strategy to restore gut microbiota and improve intestinal health in the obese. This paper examines the role of probiotics, antimicrobials, and diet in modulating gut microbiota and improving intestinal health. Accordingly, obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice, after which they were redistributed and fed with an obesogenic diet (intervention A) or standard AIN-93 diet (intervention B). Concomitantly, all the groups underwent a treatment phase with Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12, ceftriaxone, or ceftriaxone followed by L. gasseri LG-G12. At the end of the experimental period, the following analysis was conducted: metataxonomic analysis, functional profiling of gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and caecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids. High-fat diet impaired bacterial diversity/richness, which was counteracted in association with L. gasseri LG-G12 and the AIN-93 diet. Additionally, SCFA-producing bacteria were negatively correlated with high intestinal permeability parameters, which was further confirmed via functional profile prediction of the gut microbiota. A novel perspective on anti-obesity probiotics is presented by these findings based on the improvement of intestinal health irrespective of undergoing antimicrobial therapy or not.

Macauba ( Acrocomia aculeata) Pulp Oil Prevents Adipogenesis, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

Cíntia Tomaz Sant’ Ana, Thaísa Agrizzi Verediano, Mariana Grancieri, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Elad Tako, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros
Nutrients, v. 15, p.1-15.
Impact factor: 5.9

Abstract: Macauba is a palm tree native to Brazil, which fruits are rich in oil. Macauba pulp oil has high contents of oleic acid, carotenoids, and tocopherol, but its effect on health is unknown. We hypothesized that macauba pulp oil would prevent adipogenesis and inflammation in mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of macauba pulp oil on the metabolic changes in C57Bl/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Three experimental groups were used (n = 10): control diet (CD), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet with macauba pulp oil (HFM). The HFM reduced malondialdehyde and increased SOD activity and antioxidant capacity (TAC), showing high positive correlations between total tocopherol, oleic acid, and carotenoid intakes and SOD activity (r = 0.9642, r = 0.8770, and r = 0.8585, respectively). The animals fed the HFM had lower levels of PPAR-γ and NF-κB, which were negatively correlated with oleic acid intake (r = -0.7809 and r = -0.7831, respectively). Moreover, the consumption of macauba pulp oil reduced inflammatory infiltrate, adipocyte number and length, (mRNA) TNF-α, and (mRNA) SREBP-1c in the adipose tissue, and it increased (mRNA) Adiponectin. Therefore, macauba pulp oil prevents oxidative stress, inflammation, and adipogenesis and increases antioxidant capacity; these results highlight its potential against metabolic changes induced by an HFD

Milk kefir alters fecal microbiota impacting gut and brain health in mice.

Mariana de Fátima Albuquerque Pereira, Larissa Gabriela Morais de Ávila, Gabriela de Cássia Ávila Alpino, Bruna Cristina Dos Santos Cruz, Lucas Filipe Almeida, Jordana Macedo Simões, Andressa Ladeira Bernardes, Iasmim Xisto Campos, Andréa de Oliveira Barros Ribon, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes,
Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, v. 107, p.5161-5178.
Impact factor: 5.0
DOI: 10.1007/s00253-023-12630-0

Abstract: Kefir is a fermented beverage made of a symbiotic microbial community that stands out for health benefits. Although its microbial profile is still little explored, its effects on modulation of gut microbiota and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) seems to act by improving brain health. This work aimed to analyze the microbiota profile of milk kefir and its effect on metabolism, oxidative stress, and in the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a murine model. The experimental design was carried out using C57BL-6 mice (n = 20) subdivided into groups that received 0.1 mL water or 0.1 mL (10% w/v) kefir. The kefir proceeded to maturation for 48 h, and then it was orally administered, via gavage, to the animals for 4 weeks. Physicochemical, microbiological, antioxidant analyzes, and microbial profiling of milk kefir beverage were performed as well as growth parameters, food intake, serum markers, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, SCFAs, and metabarcoding were analyzed in the mice. Milk kefir had 76.64 ± 0.42% of free radical scavenging and the microbiota composed primarily by the genus Comamonas. Moreover, kefir increased catalase and superoxide dismutase (colon), and SCFAs in feces (butyrate), and in the brain (butyrate and propionate). Kefir reduced triglycerides, uric acid, and affected the microbiome of animals increasing fecal butyrate-producing bacteria (Lachnospiraceae and Lachnoclostridium). Our results on the brain and fecal SCFAs and the antioxidant effect found were associated with the change in the gut microbiota caused by kefir, which indicates that kefir positively influences the gut-microbiota-brain axis and contributes to the preservation of gut and brain health.

Neighborhood obesogenic environment and cardiometabolic risk in Brazilian children: The mediation role of the mother’s body mass index.

Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Ariene Silva do Carmo, Aline Siqueira Fogal Vegi, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Juliana Farias de NovaesAmerican Journal of Human Biology, v. 35, p. 1-12.
Impact factor: 2.9
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23835.

Abstract: Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association of neighborhood obesogenic and leptogenic environments with cardiometabolic risk clustering among Brazilian schoolchildren, mediated by child’s ultra-processed food consumption and the mother’s body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of 367 children aged 8-9 years, enrolled in urban schools of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated. Waist circumference, insulin resistance, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations were measured. The child’s ultra-processed food consumption assessment was performed by applying three 24-hour dietary recall. The mother’s weight and height values were used to calculate the BMI. The neighborhood income, walkability index, predominantly ultra-processed food stores, public spaces for leisure, and/or physical activities, traffic accidents, crime, and green spaces densities were assessed in four hundred road network buffers around households. From neighborhood and cardiometabolic risk variables, four latent variables were obtained from confirmatory factor analysis: neighborhood “obesogenic”, and “leptogenic” environments; “high cardiometabolic risk,” and “low atherogenic risk”. A structural equation model was used to test the direct and indirect associations between neighborhood environment and cardiometabolic risk clusters. Results: The neighborhood obesogenic environment had a significant total association (Standardized Coefficient = 0.172, p = .011) and was indirectly associated with the child’s “high cardiometabolic risk” cluster, mediated by the mother’s body mass index (Standardized Coefficient = 0.066, p = .049). Conclusions: Our results reinforce the role of the urban environment on maternal obesity and child’s cardiometabolic risk and provide evidence for public health policies aimed to prevent such conditions.

Nut-enriched energy restricted diet has potential to decrease hunger in women at cardiometabolic risk: a randomized controlled trial (Brazilian Nuts Study).

Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Nutrition Research, v. 109, p.35-46.
Impact factor: 4.5
DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2022.11.003.

Abstract: Successful weight management represents a challenge to obesity control. Evidence suggests that nut consumption promotes a prolonged satiety response. Therefore, we hypothesize that nuts could be associated with greater weight loss in comparison to a control group, and we evaluate the acute and long-term effects of Brazilian nuts (BN: 15 g of Brazil nuts + 30 g of cashew nuts) included in an energy-restricted intervention on food intake, appetite, and peptide hormones. We conducted an 8-week, randomized, open-label, controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial with 28 women at cardiometabolic risk who received an energy-restricted diet containing BN or an energy-restricted nut-free diet (control). At baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention, subjective postprandial appetite ratings were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before and after consumption (0, 10, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes) of a 437-kcal nut-enriched (BN group) or nut-free (control) breakfast meal. Subsequently, an ad libitum lunch was served, and the participants completed another VAS at 280 minutes. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin were measured at fasting and postprandially at 60, 120, and 240 minutes. Last, subsequent reported 24-hour energy intake was assessed in a free-living setting. BN consumption did not have acute effects on food intake, appetite, or peptide hormones. However, after an 8-week intervention, postprandial ghrelin (difference between post- and preintervention area under the curve) decreased in the BN group in comparison to the control (mean difference, 1978 pg/mL/min, 95% CI, 27-3929 pg/mL/min; P = .047) and therefore, an energy-restricted diet containing demonstrated potential to decrease hunger in cardiometabolic risk women.

Nutritional content, amino acid profile, and protein properties of edible insects (Tenebrio molitor and Gryllus assimilis) powders at different stages of development.

Lívya Alves Oliveira, Stephanie Michelin Santana Pereira, Kelly Aparecida Dias, Stefany da Silva Paes, Mariana Grancieri, Luis Gonzalo Salinas Jimenez, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Eugenio Eduardo de Oliveira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v. 125, p. 1-14.
Impact factor: 4.3
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2023.105804

Abstract: Insects have great potential as ingredients for industrial purposes, providing good technological properties. This study aimed to characterize powders of Tenebrio molitor and Gryllus assimilis at two developmental stages for potential use in human nutrition. The insect powders were analyzed for their proximate composition, mineral content, carotenoids, vitamins C and E, riboflavin, niacin, amino acid profile, in vitro protein digestibility, solubility as a function of pH, foam-forming, and water and oil-holding capacity. Both powders were excellent sources of proteins (ranging from 57.36 % to 67.97 %), phosphorus (512.00–732 mg/100 g), copper (1.45–3.01 mg/100 g), iron (5.41–8.41 mg/100 g), zinc (11.62–25.57 mg/100 g), manganese (1.63–8.08 mg/100 g), good sources of magnesium (84.00–180.00 mg/100 g), and sources of potassium (624.00–820.00 mg/100 g), and niacin (1.88–3.21 mg/100 g). The proteins showed good digestibility (84.48–92.53 %) and increased solubility in alkaline pH (∼11). Lysine was identified as the limiting amino acid for both species analyzed (EAAS: 0.55–0.79). The development stage of the insects influenced their nutritional content, amino acid profile, and functional protein properties. The data obtained support the potential use of these insect powders on a large scale and contribute to selecting the development stage with the best nutritional composition.

Nutritional indicators of food and nutrition security of families: 2008/2009 Household Budget Survey

Dayane de Castro Morais, Cristiana Tristão Rodrigues, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Brazilian Journal of Nutrition, v.36, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 0.8
DOI: 10.1590/1678-9865202336e220110.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the food and nutrition insecurity of Brazilian families, according to indicators of food consumption and nutritional status, by location and situation of the households investigated using the 2008/2009 Household Budget Survey. Methods: Inadequate consumption of macronutrients and nutritional dystrophies (underweight, short stature or overweight) in at least one family member were used as indicators, according to location and geographical situation of households. The prevalence of food and nutritional insecurity and their confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Food consumption was assessed in a total of 13,569 households; a total of 67.55%, 43.96% and 6.85% revealed inadequacy for lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, respectively. Among the 53,640 households assessed by nutritional status, 15.10%, 35.15% and 45.50% had, at least one resident with low weight, short stature or overweight respectively. The Northeastern Region showed statistically higher prevalence than other Brazilian macro-regions for inadequate lipids (24.88%) and carbohydrates (15.32%), as well as for the presence of underweight (6.15%), overweight (14.77%) and short stature (15.17%), in at least one of the residents of the household. Conclusion: Assessing the nutritional aspect of food insecurity allows for a better understanding of the dimensions of this situation by considering the effects of access and availability of food, as well as biological use and stability, based on indicators of inadequate food consumption and the presence of nutritional dystrophy. The results found in this study enhance the need to include nutritional indicators in the assessment of food security.

Nutritional aspects of non-conventional edible plants from Brazil: Caruru (Amaranthus spinosus L) and trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis).

Lucélia Vieira Pereira, Maiara Rodrigues Salvador, Beatriz Souza Silva, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Reinaldo Duque Brasil, Landulfo Teixeira, Leandro de Morais Cardoso
Food Research International, v. 166, p.1-7.
Impact factor: 8.1
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.112583.

Abstract: Caruru (Amaranthus spinosus L) and trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis) are NCEPs introduced into Brazil and are widely used by certain communities. Given the lack of information on carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals present in A. spinosus and C. benghalensis grown in Brazil, this study aimed to determine the proximate composition and the micronutrient profile of these two NCEPs obtained from family farming in the Middle Doce River (Médio Rio Doce) region in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The proximate composition was evaluated using AOAC methods, vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detection, vitamin C and carotenoids by HPLC-DAD, and minerals by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. In summary, the leaves of A. spinosus exhibited a high content of dietary fiber (10.20 g.100 g−1), potassium (708.8 mg·100 g−1), iron (4.0 mg·100 g−1) and β-carotene (6.94 mg·100 g−1), while the leaves of C. benghalensis were sources of potassium (1399.31 mg·100 g−1), iron (5.7 mg·100 g−1), calcium (163 mg·100 g−1), zinc (1.3 mg·100 g−1), ascorbic acid (23.61 mg·100 g−1), and β-carotene (31.33 mg·100 g−1). It was therefore concluded that C. benghalensis and A. spinosus, especially, presented excellent potential as important nutritional sources for human consumption, highlighting the gap existing between the available technical and scientific material, thus making them an important and necessary axis of research.

Obesogenic environment around schools is associated with atherogenic risk in Brazilian children.

Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Ariene Silva do Carmo, Aline Siqueira Fogal Vegi, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Juliana Farias de Novaes
American Journal of Human Biology, v. 35, p.1-11.
Impact factor: 2.9
DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23844

Abstract: Introduction: Cardiometabolic risk factors often emerge in childhood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. The school environments represent an important active space in a child’s routine and may influence their health status. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors and its association with the obesogenic and leptogenic environment around schools. A total of 378 children (181 boys; 197 girls) aged 8 and 9 years, enrolled in all urban schools of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated. Concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides (TG), and the insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference (WC), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. The neighborhood income, walkability index, predominantly ultra-processed food stores, public spaces for leisure and/or physical activities, traffic accidents, crime and green spaces densities were assessed in 400 road network buffers around schools. To test association of the obesogenic and leptogenic environment around schools with cardiometabolic risk clustering, binary logistic regression models were performed with generalized estimating equations. Results: “Obesogenic school environments” had greater densities of ultra-processed food stores, crime and traffic accidents, and higher walkability. The “↓ Atherogenic risk” cluster consisted of higher HDL-c values. There was an inverse association between the obesogenic environment around schools and a child’s “↓ atherogenic risk” clustering (OR = 0.63; p < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that public policies aimed at modifying the environment around schools, by providing healthier food options and safe conditions for active mobility, are essential to prevent child’s atherogenic risk.

Preoperative Carbohydrate Quality Index Is Related to Markers of Glucose Metabolism 12 Months After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

Darlene Larissa Vilela, Alessandra da Silva, Sônia Lopes Pinto, Josefina Bressan
Obesity Surgery , v.33, p. 3155-3162.
Impact factor: 2.9
DOI: 10.1007/s11695-023-06771-4

Abstract: Objective The role of carbohydrates in weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to verify the relationship of the carbohydrate quality index (CQI) with weight loss and cardiometabolic risk markers up to 1 year after BS. Material and Methods This study included 50 patients with obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Data collection was performed preoperatively and 3 and 12 months after surgery. The foods consumed were documented using a 24-h food recall in 3 days. The CQI was calculated considering the following parameters: dietary fber intake, sugar level; whole grains: proportion of total grains; solid carbohydrate: total carbohydrate ratio. Results From the total study sample, 58 participants were followed up for 3 months, and eight participants dropped out of the study. The remaining 50 patients were followed up for 12 months. Subjects were classifed into tertiles according to the index score. A 1-unit increase in CQI was associated with a −1.02 decrease in insulin concentrations at 12 months and a −1.04 decrease in HOMA-IR. Concerning the total sample, the median of the CQI was 8 points and did not change at 3 and
12 months after surgery, but there was an improvement in some components of the index. Conclusion The data suggest that the quality of carbohydrates can interfere with markers of insulin resistance after BS and the quality of carbohydrates is a point to be guided in patients undergoing BS.

Proinflammatory maternal diet and early weaning are associated with the inflammatory diet index of Brazilian children (6-12 mo): A pathway analysis.

Marcela Martins Soares, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hebert, Raquel Maria Amaral Araujo
Nutrition, v. 105,p. 1-6
Impact factor: 4.4
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2022.111845

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and its association with maternal factors and excess body weight in Brazilian children aged <2 y during complementary feeding. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (20162019), conducted with 231 mothers and children ages 6 to 24 mo. The food consumption of the mother-child dyad was obtained through the mean of three 24-h recalls, as well as information on the consumption of breast milk. The DII was used to verify the quality of the diet. Children’s weight and length were measured, and the weight/height index was calculated. Path analysis was used to assess the interrelationships between variables. Multiple linear regression was conducted to identify the components of the child’s DII (C-DII) that contributed the most to explaining its variation.Results: The children had an anti-inflammatory diet (C-DII 0.37 § 0.91) whereas the mothers had a proinflammatory diet (M-DII +0.24 § 0.86). Fiber was the nutrient that contributed most to the variations in the CDII. Approximately 28% of children were overweight. In the pathway analysis, we verified a direct negative effect of education on excess body weight (standardized coefficients [SC], 0.180; P = 0.034) and C-DII (SC,0.167; P = 0.002); negative direct effect of breastfeeding on the C-DII (SC, 0.294; P < 0.001); and positive direct effect of M-DII on C-DII (SC, 0.119; P = 0.021). Conclusion: Children’s proinflammatory diet during the period of complementary feeding was associated with maternal proinflammatory diets, lower education, and absence of breastfeeding practice.

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among individuals with chronic kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Luiza Delazari Borges, Heloísa Helena Dias, Emily de Souza Ferreira, Paulyenny Machado Alves, Beatriz Oliveira Silva, Kíllya de Paiva Santos, Glauce Dias da Costa, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Daniel Souza Santos, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, v.5, p.1-10.
DOI: 10.17267/2675-021Xevidence.2023.e4060

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is currently considered a global epidemic, with alarming estimates for the coming years on all continents, with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) as one of its main consequences when a timely diagnosis is not made. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of DM among individuals diagnosed with CKD by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out in the main free-access databases such as Pubmed (Medlaine), Lilacs, Scopus and Scielo. Two researchers selected the articles, extracted the data and evaluated the quality. The collected data were evaluated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Of 994 articles, 17 studies were included that looked at three continents. The group prevalence of DM among individuals with CKD (95% CI) was 29% (23-35%), with heterogeneity I2 = 99,86% and p = 0.00, which was not explained by meta-regression and subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirmed the high prevalence of DM among individuals with CKD, especially among those with end-stage renal disease, demonstrating the need for early diagnosis and timely treatment of DM and new studies in this area, considering the social and economic impact of these diseases worldwide.

Relationship between dietary macronutrient composition with weight loss after bariatric surgery: A systematic review.

Darlene Larissa de Souza Vilela, Alessandra da Silva, Sônia Lopes Pinto, Josefina Bressan
Obesity Research, v.24.
Impact factor: 8.9
DOI: 10.1111/obr.13559.

Abstract: This systematic review evaluated the relationship between macronutrient intake and weight loss after bariatric surgery (BS). The MEDLINE/Pubmed, EMBASE, COCHRANE/CENTRAL, and SCOPUS databases were accessed in August 2021 to search for eligible articles: original publications with adults undergoing BS and indicating the relationship between macronutrients and weight loss. Titles that did not meet these criteria were excluded. The review was written according to the PRISMA guide, and the risk of bias was according to the Joanna Briggs manual. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Eight articles with 2.378 subjects were included. The studies indicated a positive relationship between weight loss and protein intake after BS. Prioritization of protein followed by carbohydrates with a lower percentage of lipids favors weight loss and increases weight stability after BS. Among the results found, a 1% increase in protein intake raises the probability of obesity remission by 6%, and high-protein diet increase 50% weight loss success. Limitations are the methods of included studies and review process. It is concluded that high-protein intake >60 g a 90 g/day may favor weight loss and maintenance after BS, but it is relevant to balance the other macronutrients.

Role of diet quality in bone health in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

Lara Gomes Suhett, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Juliana Farias de Novaes, Deeptha Sukumar
Nutrition Reviews, v.2023.
Impact factor: 6.1
DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuad036

Abstract: Context: Poor diet quality and unhealthy dietary patterns have been linked to poor bone health, yet few studies have investigated the role of diet quality in bone health in pediatric populations. Objective: This systematic review aims to assess the available evidence on the association between diet quality and bone health markers in children and adolescents. Data sources: The PubMed, Scopus, and Virtual Health Library databases were searched electronically from October to November 2022, without any restrictions on date or language. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) checklist was used to assess the quality of the studies. Data extraction: Published observational studies in children and adolescents (ages 2 to 19 years) that investigated the association between diet quality and bone health were eligible for inclusion. Two researchers independently analyzed and selected all articles using the Rayyan app. Initially, 965 papers were identified. A total of 12 observational studies qualified, including 8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies. The sample comprised 7130 individuals aged 3 to 17.9 years, representing both sexes. Bone health was evaluated by measures of bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Data analysis: Seven studies (58.3%) showed significant associations between diet quality and bone health markers, all of which evaluated diet quality by identifying dietary patterns. Diet quality as evaluated by all dietary indexes was not associated with bone health markers. Conclusions: Adherence to a healthy diet may benefit bone health in children and adolescents. These findings emphasize the importance of developing effective public health policies that encourage healthy eating habits from childhood to preserve bone health. Longitudinal research using a specific tool to assess diet quality in relation to bone health is warranted. Future studies should also measure bone-regulating hormones and markers of bone turnover.

Scientific Evidence for the Beneficial Effects of Dietary Blueberries on Gut Health: A Systematic Review.

Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Livya Alves Oliveira, Kelly Aparecida Dias, Stephanie Michelin Santana Pereira, Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, v.67.
Impact factor: 5.2
DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.202300096.

Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates the association between an unhealthy gut and chronic diseases. A healthy gut comprises an intact gut epithelium and balanced gut microbes. Diet is one of the critical factors that modulate gut health by positively or negatively affecting the intestinal barrier and gut microbes. Blueberries are an excellent source of health-promoting bioactive components, and this systematic review is conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary blueberries on gut health. A literature search is conducted on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases to review relevant studies published between 2011 and 2022 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation Risk of Bias (SYRCLE-RoB) tool is used for methodological quality assessments. Sixteen studies included from four countries are reviewed and the results are synthesized narratively. This data analysis indicates that blueberry supplementation improves gut health by improving intestinal morphology, reducing gut permeability, suppressing oxidative stress, ameliorating gut inflammation, and modulating the composition and function of gut microbes. However, there are significant knowledge gaps in this field. These findings indicate that further studies are needed to establish the beneficial effects of blueberries on gut health.

Socioeconomic status, screen time, and time spent at school, and children’s food consumption

Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonseca Viola, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Roberta Rejane Santos de Carvalho, Cristiana Santos Andreoli, Juliana Farias de Novaes, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Carolina Abreu de Carvalho, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 28, p.257-268.
Impact factor: 1.7
DOI: 10.1590/1413-81232023281.05772022

Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the association of sociodemographic factors and lifestyle with the consumption of in natura or minimally processed (INMP) foods, ultra-processed foods (UPFs), and fruits and vegetables. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 403 children, aged 4 to 7 years, from a retrospective cohort. Sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were investigated using a sociodemographic questionnaire. Food consumption was assessed by three food records. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to analyze associations. Children with lower income had a higher consumption of INMP foods and a lower consumption of UPFs. A shorter time spent at school was associated with a lower consumption of INMP foods and a higher consumption of UPFs. Children with more screen time and less educated parents consumed less fruits and vegetables. Unfavorable sociodemographic factors were associated with a better profile of food consumption according to the level of processing, except for fruits and vegetables. The longer time spent at school and a shorter screen time contributed to a healthier diet.

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) molasses: Physicochemical characterization and in vitro bioavailability of different genotypes.

Andressa de Assis, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Raymond P. Glahn, Izabela Maria Montezano de Carvalho, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino
Journal of Cereal Science, v. 113, p. 1-9,
Impact factor: 3.8
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2023.103759

Abstract: The present study aimed to analyze the physicochemical composition, bioactive compound contents and iron bioavailability (cell culture caco-2) of sweet sorghum molasses of different genotypes and compare them to sugar cane molasses. Sorghum molasses presented proteins (0.28–2.90%), lipids (0.07–0.53%), total dietary fiber (0.00–2.85%), carbohydrates (90.16–93 0.29%), pH (4.67–4.95), acidity (0.3–0.45) and BRIX (38.2–58.5°). The sorghum molasses contained high ash concentration (3.30–6.86%) and calcium (397–966 mg), compared to sugar cane (1.98% and 70 mg). Sorghum molasses presented higher levels of total phenolic compounds (19.3–48.4 mg GAE/g) compared to sugar cane (8.8 mg GAE/g). Ferritin concentration was higher in two sorghum molasses (6.3–6.8 ng/mg), compared to sugar cane (4.3 ng/mg). Thus, sorghum molasses proved to be a promising source of minerals and bioactive compounds and an excellent food to be used in human nutrition.

The Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program improves diet quality in patients with established cardiovascular disease: results from a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Alessandra da Silva, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Aline Marcadenti, Angela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Bernardete Weber, Nitin Shivappa, Josefina Bressan
Nutrition Research,v. 2023, p. 1-13
Impact factor: 4.5
DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2023.10.007

Abstract: Dietary modifications are essential strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention. However, studies are needed to investigate the diet quality of individuals undergoing secondary prevention in cardiology and who received dietary intervention based on cardiovascular disease management. We prospectively evaluated the diet quality in the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial (BALANCE Program Trial). We hypothesized that the BALANCE Program could improve patients’ dietary pattern according to different indices of diet quality such as the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII); the dietary total antioxidant capacity; overall, healthful, and unhealthful Plant-Based Diet Index (PDI, hPDI, and uPDI, respectively); and modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). This multicenter randomized, controlled trial included patients aged ≥45 years randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Data from 2185 participants at baseline and after 12, 24, 36, and 48 months showed that the intervention group (n = 1077) had lower mean values of DII and higher dietary total antioxidant capacity, PDI, hPDI, and mAHEI than the control group. The results also showed differences between the follow-up times for DII, hPDI, and uPDI (48 months vs baseline) and for PDI and mAHEI (24 months vs baseline), regardless of group. The interaction analysis demonstrated that the intervention group showed better results than the control group at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months for the DII and at months 12, 36, and 48 for the mAHEI. Our results provide prospective evidence that the BALANCE Program improved the diet quality in those in secondary cardiovascular prevention according to different indices, with the intervention group showing better results than the control group.

The effectiveness of mobile application for monitoring diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the adult and elderly population: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Emily de Souza Ferreira, Fernanda de Aguiar Franco, Marina Marilac dos Santos Lara, André Amaral Levcovitz, Mateus Araújo Dias, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Ary Henrique Morais de Oliveira, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
BMC Health Services Research, v. 23, p.1-10.
FImpact factor: 2.8
DOI: 10.1186/s12913-023-09879-6

Abstract: Context: Arterial Hypertension (AH) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are diseases that are getting worse all over the world. Linked to this advance, is the growing digital health market with numerous mobile health applications, which aim to help patients and professionals in the proper management of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the effectiveness of using mobile health applications in monitoring AH and/or DM in the adult and elderly population. Methods: The systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Metanalyses guidelines and involved searching five databases – Medline/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Virtual Library in Health and Cochrane Library. The review included randomized and cohort clinical trials testing the effects of the intervention on changing biochemical parameters and clinical efficacy in people treated for AH and/or DM. The quality of the selected studies was assessed based on the evaluation criteria of the Joanna Briggs Institute tool. The random effects meta-analysis method was used to explain effect distribution between studies, by Stata® software (version 11.0) and publication bias was examined by visual inspection of graphs and Egger test. Results: We included 26 studies in the systematic review and 17 in the meta-analysis. These studies were published between 2014 to 2022 in 14 countries. Were reported improvement in knowledge and self-management of AH and DM, social motivation with treatment and behavioral change, reduction in glycated hemoglobin values, fasting glucose and blood pressure, improvement in adherence to drug treatment, among others. The result of the meta-analysis showed that there is evidence that the use of mobile applications can help reduce glycated hemoglobin by 0.39% compared to the usual care group. Conclusions: Monitoring and self-monitoring of behaviors and health care related to AH and DM in adults and the elderly through mobile applications, has clinically significant effectiveness in reducing glycated hemoglobin levels. Future studies should provide more evidence and recommendations for best practices and development of digital health interventions.

The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods and a pro-inflammatory diet are associated with the normal-weight obesity phenotype in Brazilian children.

Bruna Clemente Cota, Mariana de Santis Filgueiras, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Nutrition, v. 117, p.1-7.
Impact factor: 4.4
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2023.112234

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and the Children’s Dietary Inflammatory Index (C-DII) with the normal-weight obesity (NWO) phenotype in school-aged children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of 364 children ages 8 to 9 y in Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The NWO phenotype was de ¸ fined as normal weight according to body mass index and high body fat, assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Three 24-h dietary recalls were performed to evaluate NOVA classification groups and to calculate the C-DII score. Results: Among normal-weight children (NWO and “no NWO”), higher consumption of UPF (second tercile [T2]: prevalence ratio [PR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13.4; T3: PR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.013.1) and a diet consisting of high proinflammatory foods (T2: PR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.04,2.8) were associated with a higher prevalence of NWO, in relation to the first tercile. Similarly, among children with excess body fat independent of body mass index (NWO and excess of weight), higher consumption of UPF was associated with a higher prevalence of NWO (T2: PR, 2; 95% CI, 1.23.3) in relation to T1. Conclusion: Higher UPF consumption and a diet consisting of high proinflammatory foods were associated with the NWO phenotype in children.

The Possible Mediatory Role of Inflammatory Markers on the Association of Dietary Insulin Index and Insulin Load with Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Overweight and Obesity.

Melika Darzi, Farideh Shiraseb, Alessandra da Silva, Josefina Bressan, Cain C T Clark, Sara Mahmoodi, Khadijeh Mirzaei
International Journal of Clinical Practice 2023, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 2.6
DOI: 10.1155/2023/1979124

Abstract: Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased inflammation. Diet plays an important role in the prevention and management of MetS, while some dietary factors can also increase or decrease markers of systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine the mediated association of inflammatory markers induced by dietary insulin index (DII) and dietary insulin load (DIL) with MetS and its components. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 219 women aged 18-28 years. Dietary intake was assessed by a 147-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). DII and DIL were calculated using the standard formula. The guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III were used to define MetS. Biochemical parameters and anthropometric and blood pressure measures were evaluated by standard protocols.Results: After the adjustment for potential confounders, a marginally significant association was found between DII and MetS (OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 0.93-4.82; P = 0.06). However, we did not find a significant association between DIL and MetS. Furthermore, DII was significantly associated with waist circumference (WC) (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.09- 4.03; P = 0.03) and marginally associated with triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 0.92-2.33; P = 0.07) and systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 0.85-3.99; P = 0.07). Moreover, there was a significant association between DIL and SBP/DBP (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.54-5.61; P = 0.04). Also, we found that MCP-1 may have a mediatory role in the association between DII and DIL with MetS and several components of MetS. Hs-CRP did not have mediatory role in the association between DII and MetS. However, hs-CRP had a mediatory role in several MetS components. Furthermore, hs-CRP may have a mediatory role in the association of DIL with MetS and with some of its components. Conclusions: A higher DII score may increase the odds of MetS and its components. DIL was not significantly associated with the odds of MetS, but the association of DIL and SBP/DBP was significant. MCP-1 may have a mediatory role in associations between DII and DIL with MetS. In addition, hs-CRP may have a mediatory role in the association between DIL and MetS.

The Prevalence of Nutritional Anaemia in Brazilian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Amanda Biete, Vivian S. S. Gonçalves, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Eduardo A. F. Nilson, Nathalia Pizato
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v.20, p. 1519 – 1536.
Impact factor: 4.614
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20021519

Abstract Despite the global tendency of maternal anaemia to decline, the persistence of anaemia in
Brazil is an important health problem given its vulnerability to deficiencies and the significant increase
in nutritional requirements during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence
of anaemia in Brazilian pregnant women through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
The systematic review was carried out according to Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA
checklist recommendations and using the following electronic databases: Medline, Scopus, Embase,
Web of Science, Lilacs, Scielo, Google Scholar, and CAPES Catalog of Theses and Dissertations.
Studies that presented a prevalence of anaemia data in Brazilian pregnant women, considering all
gestational trimesters, were included. The total sample included 12,792 pregnant women covering
all gestational trimesters. The pooled prevalence of anaemia in Brazilian pregnant women was 23%
(95% CI: 20–27), with the highest prevalence in the Northeast Region at 26% (95% CI 23–29), while the
lowest prevalence was observed in the North Region with 17% (95% CI 14–20). Among the subgroups,
no statistical difference was observed. The prevalence of anaemia status in Brazil is still classified as
a moderate public health problem according to the World Health Organization maternal anaemia

The role of IL-10 in regulating inflammation and gut microbiome in mice consuming milk kefir and orally challenged with S. Typhimurium.

Mariana de Fátima Albuquerque Pereira, Larissa Gabriela Morais de Ávila, Bruna Cristina dos Santos Cru, Bruno Campos Silva, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Andrea de Oliveira Barros Ribon, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Food & Function, v. 14, p.3804-3814.
Impact factor: 6.1
DOI: 10.1039/D2FO04063H

Abstract: Kefir has been suggested as a possible bacterial prophylaxis against Salmonella and IL-10 production seems to be crucial in the pathogenesis of salmonellosis in mice. This study evaluated the role of IL-10 in the inflammation and gut microbiome in mice consuming milk kefir and orally challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. C57BL wild type (WT) (n = 40) and C57BL IL-10−/− (KO) (n = 40) mice were subdivided into eight experimental groups either treated or not with kefir. In the first 15 days, the water groups received filtered water (0.1 mL) while the kefir groups received milk kefir (10% w/v) orally by gavage. Then, two groups of each strain received a single dose (0.1 mL) of the inoculum of S. Typhimurium (ATCC 14028, dose: 106 CFU mL−1). After four weeks, the animals were euthanized to remove the colon for further analysis. Kefir prevented systemic infections only in IL-10−/− mice, which were able to survive, regulate cytokines, and control colon inflammation. The abundance in Lachnospiraceae and Roseburia, and also the higher SCFA production in the pre-infection, showed that kefir has a role in intestinal health and protection, colonizing and offering competition for nutrients with the pathogen as well as acting in the regulation of salmonella infectivity only in the absence of IL-10. These results demonstrate the role of IL-10 in the prognosis of salmonellosis and how milk kefir can be used in acute infections.

Ultra-Processed Foods and Schooling Are Independently Associated with Lower Iron and Folate Consumption by Pregnant Women Followed in Primary Health Care.

Amanda Biete, Vivian S. S. Gonçalves, Sandra Patrícia Crispim, Sylvia do Carmo castro Franceschini, Ariene S. Carmo, Nathalia Pizato
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v.20, p. 6063 – 6078.
Impact factor: 4.614
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20126063

Abstract: Combined deficiencies of nutrients such as iron and folic acid intake during pregnancy are
related to nutritional deficiencies risk, such as anemia. The objective of this study was to analyze
the association between risk factors (sociodemographic, dietary and lifestyle) and the intake of iron
and folate by pregnant women followed up in Primary Health Care (PHC) in the Federal District,
Brazil. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out with adult pregnant women of different
gestational ages. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied by researchers trained to collect
sociodemographic, economic, environmental, and health data. Two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls
(24hr) were carried out to collect data about food consumption. Multivariate linear regression models
were used to analyze the association between sociodemographic and dietary risk factors and the
consumption of iron and folate. The mean daily energy intake was 1726 kcal (95% CI 1641–1811),
with 22.4% (95% CI 20.09–24.66) derived from ultra-processed foods (UPFs). The mean iron and folate
intake were 5.28 mg (95% CI 5.09–5.48) and 193.42 µg (95% CI 182.22–204.61), respectively. According
to the multivariate model, the highest quintile of ultra-processed foods intake was associated with
lower iron (β = −1.15; IC 95%: −1.74; 0.55; p < 0.001) and folate intake (β = −63.23; IC 95%: −98.32;
−28.15; p < 0.001). Pregnant women with high school degree presented higher iron intake (β = 0.74;
IC 95%: 0.20; 1.28; p = 0.007) and folate intake (β = 38.95; IC 95%: 6.96; 70.95; p = 0.017) compared
to pregnant women with elementary school degree. Folate consumption was also associated with
the second gestational period (β = 39.44; IC 95%: 5.58; 73.30; p = 0.023) and pregnancy planning
(β = 26.88; IC 95%: 3.58; 50.18; p = 0.024). Further research is warranted to enhance evidence on
the relationship between the role of processed foods and micronutrients intake to strengthen the
nutritional quality of diet of pregnant women attended in Primary Health Care.

Ultra-processed food consumption is positively associated with the incidence of depression in Brazilian adults (CUME project).

Arieta Carla Gualandi Leal, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Katiusse Rezende-Alves, Josefina Bressan, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Journal of Affective Disorders, v.328, p.58-63.
Impact factor: 6.6
DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2023.01.120

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between the consumption of ultra-processed food and the incidence of depression in Brazilian adults. Methods: This longitudinal study included 2572 participants (M = 936 and F = 1636, mean age of 36.1 years) from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais – CUME Project, Brazil. Ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption (in % of daily energy intake, DEI), as defined by the NOVA food classification system, was assessed at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative 144-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression if they reported a medical diagnosis of depression in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. Crude and adjusted cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between UPF consumption and the incidence of depression. Results: After a mean of follow-up of 2,96 years, a total of 246 incident cases of depression were identified. The mean consumption of UPF was 44 g/d or 24 % of DEI. Participants in the highest quartile of UPF consumption (31 to 72 % of DEI) had a higher risk of developing depression (HR = 1.82 95 % CI = 1.15-2.88) than those in the lowest quartile (0 to 16 % of DEI) after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion: Higher UPF consumption is a risk factor of depression incidence in Brazilian adults with high education level.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene vulnerability in child stunting in developing countries: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Juliano R. Mudadu Silva, Letícia Lopes Vieira, Aline Ribeiro Murta Abreu, Emily de Souza Fernandes, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Glauce Dias da Costa, Rosângela Mitre Mitre Cotta
Public Health, v. 219, p.117-123.
Impact factor: 5.2
DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2023.03.024

Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between vulnerability to access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices on stunting in children aged <5 years in developing countries. Study design: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis article to assess the relationship between under-five stunting and WASH vulnerability in developing countries. Methods: The systematic review with meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol methodology. The following databases were used: LILACS, MEDLINE (via PubMed), SciELO, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, and Embase. All original studies identified that related WASH vulnerability to stunting in children aged <5 years in developing countries was included. Three authors performed independently the selection and extraction of data from the articles. The statistical software STATA version 11 was used. Cochran’s Q test and Chi-square test (I2) with 95% significance were used to assess the heterogeneity of the studies. Results: The search resulted in the initial identification of 2047 articles; after reading the abstracts, followed by the full articles, 14 articles were included in the systematic review and eight articles were included in the meta-analysis. The studies selected for the systematic review were published between the years 1992 and 2021 and conducted in eight countries, namely, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Tanzania, Peru, China, and Lesotho. The studies assessed vulnerability to access to WASH on the growth of children aged <5 years. There was a significant difference when relating WASH vulnerability to children’s height. The meta-analysis of this study showed that the impact of WASH on child stunting is significant when it comes to lack of sanitation in 72% of the studies. Conclusions: The study found that WASH vulnerability contributes to stunting in children aged <5 years in developing countries. Based on our findings, we recommend incorporating WASH strategies, especially sanitation, into the formulation of interventions integrating with health promotion policies for healthy early childhood development.


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