Publications of 2021

Acute consumption of a shake containing cashew and brazil nuts did not affect appetite in overweight subjects: a randomized, cross-over study

Mirian Aparecida de Campos Costa, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Alessandra da Silva, Josefina Bressan
European Journal of Nutrition, v.2021, p.1-10
Impact factor: 5.614

Abstract: Purpose Evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies suggests that nut consumption provides satiety and may contribute to the management of obesity. However, the effect of acute intake of nuts on appetite responses remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a shake containing 30 g of cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentaleL.) and 15 g of Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K) on appetite responses in overweight subjects.Methods This was a clinical, randomized, controlled, single-blind, cross-over, pilot study. On two non-consecutive test days, 15 subjects received a shake containing nuts, and a shake absent of nuts matched for energy and macronutrient content. Subjective appetite sensation was evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS). Food intake was measured by weighing the lunch served at the end of each morning-test, which subjects ate ad libitum. Total energy intake was estimated by food records. This study is registered on the Brazilian Registers of Clinical Trials—ReBEC (protocol: U1111-1203-9891). Results We observed no significant difference in subjective appetite sensations between the groups. Food intake at lunch, as well as energy intake throughout the day also did not differ between the treatments. Conclusion Our results suggest that the acute intake of a shake containing nuts was not able to enhance satiety, compared to a shake matched for energy and macronutrient content. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the satiety mechanisms of nuts intake.

Adiposity and insulin resistance mediate the inverse association between legume intake and blood pressure in individuals: a cross-sectional analysis in secondary cardiovascular prevention

Alinne Paula de Almeida, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Aline Marcadenti, Bernardete Weber, Josefina Bressan
Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
British Journal of Nutrition, v. 2021, p.1-27
Impact factor: 3.718

Abstract: The legume food group has important bioactive components and amino acids that have beneficial effects on blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association between legume intake and blood pressure, as well as the mediating role of cardiometabolic risk factors in patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and food intake data were collected from the baseline of the multicenter study Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial – BALANCE (RCT: NCT01620398). The relationships between variables were explored through path analysis. In total, 2,247 individuals with a median age of 63.0 (45 – 91) years, 58.8% (n= 1,321) male, and 96.5% (n= 2,168) with diagnosis of hypertension were included. Negative associations were observed between histidine intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (SC= -0.057; p=0.012), and between legume intake and body mass index (BMI) (SC= -0.061; p= 0.006). BMI was positively associated with TyG index (SC= 0.173; p< 0.001), SBP (SC= 0.144; p< 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (SC= 0.177; p< 0.001), and TyG index was positively associated with DBP (SC= 0.079; p= 0.001). A negative indirect effect was observed between the intake of legumes, SBP and DBP, mediated by BMI (SC = -0.009; p = 0.011; SC = -0.011; p = 0.010, respectively). In addition, an indirect negative effect was found between the intake of legumes and the DBP, mediated simultaneously by BMI and TyG index (SC = -0.001; p = 0.037). In conclusion, legume intake presented a negative indirect association with blood pressure, mediated by insulin resistance (TyG) and adiposity (BMI) in individuals of secondary care in cardiology

Anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescents with the metabolically obese normal weight phenotype

Bruna Clemente Cota, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Eliane Rodrigues de Faria, Franciane Rocha de Faria, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira
British Journal of Nutrition, v. 126, p.1-9
Impact factor: 3.718

Abstract: We aimed to investigate the anthropometric and body composition parameters associated with the metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) phenotype. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 506 adolescents in Brazil (aged 10–19 y). The MONW phenotype was defined as normal-weight, according to BMI/age, and at least one metabolic alteration. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and the DEXA was used for body composition analysis. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate the associations. The phenotype was positively associated with waist circumference (male: prevalence ratio (PR) = 1·05; 95% CI 1·01, 1·09; female: PR = 1·06; 95% CI 1·02, 1·09), waist:height ratio (male: PR = 1·26; 95% CI 1·07, 1·49; female: PR = 1·29; 95% CI 1·07, 1·56) and android:gynoid fat ratio (male: PR =1·25; 95% CI 1·03, 1·51; female: PR = 1·39; 95% CI 1·20, 1·62), in both sexes. Furthermore, there was a positive association of phenotype with waist:hip ratio (PR = 1·32; 95% CI 1·06, 1·65) and trunk:arm fat ratio (PR = 1·13; 95% CI 1·02, 1·24) only in males and with trunk:leg fat ratio (PR = 2·84; 95% CI 1·46, 5·53), BAIp (PR = 1·06; 95% CI 1·01, 1·12), fat mass index (PR = 1·24; 95% CI 1·10, 1·41) and regional indices of metabolic load and capacity (PR = 1·29; 95% CI 1·09, 1·53), in females. Anthropometric and body composition parameters indicative of central and total fat are associated with the MONW phenotype.

Antibiotic Followed by a Potential Probiotic Increases Brown Adipose Tissue, Reduces Biometric Measurements, and Changes Intestinal Microbiota Phyla in Obesity

Mariana de Moura e Dias, Sandra Aparecida dos Reis Louzano, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Rayssa da Conceição Fernandes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Solange Silveira Pereira, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, v. 2021, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 4.609

Abstract: The development of adjuvant therapies for obesity treatment is justified by the high prevalence of this disease worldwide, and the relationship between obesity and intestinal microbiota is a promising target for obesity treatment. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the adjuvant treatment of obesity through the use of potential probiotics and antibiotics, either separately or sequentially. In the first phase of the experiment, animals had diet-induced obesity with consumption of a high saturated fat diet and a fructose solution. After this period, there was a reduction in caloric supply, that is the conventional treatment of obesity, and the animals were divided into 5 experimental groups: control group (G1), obese group (G2), potential probiotic group (G3), antibiotic group (G4), and antibiotic followed by potential probiotic group (G5). The adjuvant treatments lasted 4 weeks and were administered daily, via gavage: Animals in G1 and G2 received distilled water, the G3 obtained Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12, and the G4 received ceftriaxone. The G5 received ceftriaxone for 2 weeks, followed by the offer of Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12 for another 2 weeks. Parameters related to obesity, such as biometric measurements, food consumption, biochemical tests, histological assessments, short-chain fatty acids concentration, and composition of the intestinal microbiota, were analyzed. The treatment with caloric restriction and sequential supply of antibiotics and potential probiotics was able to reduce biometric measures, increase brown adipose tissue, and alter the intestinal microbiota phyla, standing out as a promising treatment for obesity

Applicability of machine learning techniques in food intake assessment: A systematic review.

Larissa Oliveira Chaves, Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos, Daniel Louzada Fernandes, Fabio Ribeiro Cerqueira, Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista, Josefina Bressan
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 61, p. 1-18
Impact factor: 11.176

Abstract: The evaluation of food intake is important in scientific research and clinical practice to understand the relationship between diet and health conditions of an individual or a population. Large volumes of data are generated daily in the health sector. In this sense, Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools have been increasingly used, for example, the application of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to extract useful information, find patterns, and predict diseases. This systematic review aimed to identify studies that used ML algorithms to assess food intake in different populations. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases, and 36 studies met all criteria and were included. According to the results, there has been a growing interest in the use of ML algorithms in the area of nutrition in recent years. Also, supervised learning algorithms were the most used, and the most widely used method of nutritional assessment was the food frequency questionnaire. We observed a trend in using the data analysis programs, such as R and WEKA. The use of ML in nutrition is recent and challenging. Therefore, it is encouraged that more studies are carried out relating these themes for the development of food reeducation programs and public policies.

Assessment of the Impact of Salt Iodisation Programmes on Urinary Iodine concentrations and Goitre Rates: A Systematic Review.

Almeida Abudo Leite Machamba, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Aline Carare Candido, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, v. 2021, p.1-12
H index: 42

Abstract: Introduction. Two main strategies are currently recommended for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency in the world: implementation of universal salt iodisation programmes and permanent monitoring of iodine consumption by the population. Although iodine intake and coverage iodised salt have increased in the world population, iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) may still be a public health problem in a few countries or communities. Objective. To assess the impact of salt iodisation programmes on urinary iodine concentrations and goitre rates in the world population. Methodology. A systematic review based on the PRISMA method. We obtained articles from Scopus, Science Direct, MEDLINE databases, and other sources between March and April 2020, without limitation of dates. “Iodisation” AND “urinary iodine concentrations” AND “goitre” in English, Portuguese, and Spanish without filters and clinical trial, case-control, and cross-sectional studies were included in this review. Results. Of 479 abstracts, twenty-three were eligible. Coverage on iodised salt was in the range of 16 to 98%, and 11 studies had been sufficient, whilst eight studies had adequate iodine concentration in salt and three excess. 81.8% of studies that had an adequate median of UIC had a good impact in their respective salt iodisation programmes. Conclusion. After 18 years of salt iodisation programme implementation in the 13 countries, the majority achieved sustaining elimination of IDD whilst all had adequate median UIC; however, more detailed studies are still needed to confirm that all communities are equally protected of IDD

Association of dietary total antioxidant capacity with anthropometric indicators, C-reactive protein, and clinical outcomes in hospitalized oncologic patients.

Luiza de Oliveira Possa, Jéssica Viana Hinkelman, Carolina Araújo dos Santos, Cristiane Alves de Oliveira, Bruna Soares Faria, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa
Nutrition, v.90
Impact factor: 4.008

Abstract:  Objective: Many studies have shown an inverse association between higher dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) and chronic non-communicable diseases, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the DTAC with anthropometric and biochemical indicators and clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with cancer. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 196 hospitalized patients diagnosed with cancer. The DTAC, determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power method, was calculated using a validated standard spreadsheet. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association, identifying anthropometric indicators that were associated with DTAC and the variables of interest. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: The individuals included in the last tertile of DTAC presented lower occurrences of death (P = 0.032), constipation (P = 0.010), dysphagia (P = 0.010), painful swallowing and chewing (P = 0.019), and dehydration (P = 0.032) than individuals in the first tertile. The C-reactive protein values were significantly lower (P = 0.010) and handgrip strength values were higher (P = 0.037) in individuals in the third tertile than in the other participants. Conclusions: DTAC was associated with a better prognosis of hospitalized cancer patients, considering signs and symptoms of nutritional impact, as well as the inflammatory state of the patients. These factors may influence the length of hospital stay and mortality. The findings of this research provide important information for a preventive and nutritional management perspective in this population.

Associations between body dissatisfaction and food frequency in female adolescents

Núbia de Souza de Morais, Valter Paulo Neves Ribeiro, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Revista da Associação Brasileira de Nutrição, v.12, p5-20

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association of body image with the food frequency in female adolescents. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study, with female adolescents from Viçosa-MG. Anthropometric measures were measured, body fat was analyzed in the Bio-Impedance analysis, the food frequency (FF) was evaluated using a small and self-administered questionnaire and body image was evaluated by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and by the Silhouettes Scale. Results: A total of 394 adolescents participated in this study, with a mean age of 15.92 (± 1.27) years old, 82.4% were eutrophic and 53,4% had the percentage of body fat elevated. 37.1% had inadequate FF and none of the participants reported adequate fruit consumption. Approximately 50% were dissatisfied with their body image, both by BSQ and the Silhouettes Scale. Adolescents with greater body dissatisfaction did less than 4 meals on the days of the week (1.55, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.32). Conclusion: There was an association between body
dissatisfaction and decreased in the frequency of meals of adolescents. This study confirms the importance of investigating the behaviors adopted by adolescents due to the evaluation of body image.

Built and social environments and overweight among Brazilian adultsmedium-sized city: CUME Project

Ana Luiza Gomes Domingos, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Larissa Loures Mendes, Fernando Luiz Pereira de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares de Oliveira, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Josefina Bressan
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva on line, v.2021
Impact factor: 1.336

Abstract: Over half of the Brazilian adult population is overweight. Due to this alarming fact, it is necessary to understand not only the individual factors, but also the characteristics of the social and built environments in which people are inserted. A cross-sectional study enrolled participants from the CUME project (n=289) who lived in Viçosa, Brazil. The neighborhood unit adopted was the buffer (200 meters), considering the participant’s residence as central point. We measure the number of public and private facilities inside the buffer as well as violent criminal occurrences. Food establishments were categorized into establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, mixed establishments, and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. Those who attended the face-to-face interview filled two scales of perception of the environment. Overall, 33.6% of participants reported overweight. We observed a higher concentration of individuals close to the central region of the city. Access to different establishments, food environments, and criminal occurrences differed between normal-weight and overweight individuals. The groups deferred in the perception of the location of squares, open public spaces, clubs, and soccer fields. The results indicate the association between environmental characteristics and overweight in Brazilian adults.

Calf circumference is an independent predictor of mortality in older adults: an approach with generalized additive models.
Dalila Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Manuel Louzano, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Nutrition in Clinical Practice, v. 2021, p.1-9
Impact factor: 3.080
Abstract:Background:There is a wide variation in the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) and calf circumference (CC) , and it is necessary to assess their adequacy in redicting mortality, especially in the older adults in the community. This study aimed to investigate the association of low muscle mass and underweight with mortality in older adults, comparing different cutoff points. Methods: This was a prospective study that included 796 older adults, not institutionalized, from a Brazilian city. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to identify cutoff points for CC and BMI, which were compared with values available in the literature. Survival analysis using Cox regression models was used to assess the independent association between these nutrition indicators and mortality. Results: Over the 9 years of follow-up, 197 deaths (24.7%) occurred. Cutoff points established for CC and BMI as predictors of mortality were, respectively, <34.5 cm and <24.5. In the adjusted Cox models, older adults with a BMI <18.5 showed a significant increase in the risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.57; 95% CI, 1.23–5.35). Higher mortality was observed among older adults with CC <34.5 cm (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.27–2.33) and CC <31 cm (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.44–3.10). Conclusion: CC was an independent predictor of mortality, and the cutoff point identified by GAMs was higher than recommended by literature (31 cm). This study suggests a review of cutoff points for CC currently adopted to assess low muscle mass in older adults.

Can grape polyphenols affect glycation markers? A systematic review

Olivia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Priscila Vaz de melo Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Gonçalves Alfenas
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 2021, p.1-11
Impact factor: 11.176

Abstract: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) favor inflammation and oxidative stress, playing a role in chronic diseases pathogenesis. Grape polyphenols exert antiglycative and antioxidant effects which may contribute to prevent chronic diseases. However, clinical evidence of grape polyphenols on chronic disease prevention and treatment by glycation markers modulation are limited. Therefore, we aimed to critically analyze studies about that topic to investigate the antiglycative power of dietary grape polyphenol, and to explore the molecular mechanism involved. This systematic review was conducted and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. The following search terms were used: “grape”, “extract”, “grape seed extract”, “grape skin extract”, “polyphenol extract”, “grape polyphenol(s)”, “grape juice”, “resveratrol”, “quercetin”, “catechin”, “epicatechin”, “procyanidin(s)”, and “anthocyanin(s)”. Seven studies were included. Glycated hemoglobin was not affected. The interventions duration may not have been enough to detect changes. Grape polyphenols reduced fructosamine and methylglyoxal (MGO) concentrations, and increased endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) gene expression but did not affect the serum concentration. Resveratrol antiglycative effects are mainly due its ability to trap MGO and downregulate RAGE. In conclusion, grape polyphenols may have a positive impact on early glycation products, AGEs and esRAGE. Future studies are needed to explore how they modulate AGEs and receptors in chronic diseases.

Can resveratrol modulate sirtuins in obesity and related diseases? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Gabriela Macedo Fraiz, Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Darlene Larissa de Souza Vilela, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
European Journal of Nutrition, v. 60, p.2961-2977
Impact factor: 5.614

Abstract: Purpose Human sirtuins can be a powerful therapeutic target in preventing and treating obesity and age-related diseases. Some dietary components can modulate sirtuins’ activity, such as resveratrol. This systematic review aimed to assess whether resveratrol (RSV), without other interventions, can stimulate sirtuins in the treatment of excess weight and its comorbidities. Methods MEDLINE/Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were used for search eligible articles. Randomized clinical trials assessing RSV supplementation on changes in the sirtuins’ gene expression/protein levels was the primary outcome. Other possible changes in cardiometabolic markers were considered the second outcome. Following PRISMA guidelines and using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers independently and in parallel screened, assessed the studies’ quality, and compiled data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or consulting a third author. Results This review included seven randomized control trials. Four articles demonstrated a significant increase in SIRT-1 with different RSV dosages and interventions time. The secondary outcomes showed improvements in insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, metabolic flexibility, total antioxidant capacity, energy expenditure changes, and reduction of ectopic accumulation of fat. Conclusion Data from RCTs studies showed that RSV supplementation could stimulate SIRT-1 in humans, and therefore contribute to the treatment of excess weight and its comorbidities. However, more research is needed because it was not possible to confirm this effect truly. [PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020205571]

Cardioprotective action of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in ovariectomized rats fed a high fat diet

Marcella Duarte Villas Mishima, Luiz Carlos Maia Ladeira, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Thomás Valente de Oliveira, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food & Function, v.11, p. 1-10
Impact factor: 5.396

Abstract: The reduction in estrogen levels is associated with the increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease development. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chia consumption in a standard diet (SD) or high fat diet (HFD) on ovariectomized (OVX) and non-ovariectomized (SHAM) rats, in relation to biometric measurements, oxidative stress, mineral content and ATPase enzymes in the heart. The study was conducted with 80 female Wistar rats, which received a SD or HFD for 18 weeks. During the first 7 weeks, the animals received the SD or HFD. Then, 40 rats were ovariectomized and 40 rats were SHAM operated. After recovery from surgery, the animals were allocated to 8 groups (n = 10) and they received one of the following diets for 8 weeks: SD, SD + chia, HFD and HFD + chia. In the OVX group, HFD increased weight gain, adiposity, cardiac hypertrophy, and nitric oxide (NO) and K concentration and decreased the Na+/K+ATPase activity. In combination with HFD, ovariectomy decreased the catalase activity, Mg, Cu and Zn concentration, total ATPase activity, and Na+/K+ATPase and Mg2 + ATPase activities; this group also presented higher NO, Ca, K, Fe and Mn concentration in the heart. The SHAM group fed chia presented a lower fat content in the heart. In the OVX group fed HFD, chia increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, decreased NO and maintained the content of minerals and ATPase enzymes. Thus, chia improved the biometric parameters of the heart, the antioxidant activity and maintained the content of minerals and ATPase enzymes, showing a cardioprotective action, but without reversing the deleterious effects of ovariectomy.

Composition proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of Butia capitata.

Maria Cristina de Albuquerque Barbosa, Queila da Silva Rosa, Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Antônio Frederico de Freitas Gomide, Luiz Cláudio de Almeida Barbosa, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’ana, Soraia Silva Pinheiro, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Reinaldo Duque Brasil Landulfo Teixeira, Maria Anete Santana Valente
Food Science and Technology, v. 2021, p. 1-6
Impact factor: 1.520

Abstract: Butia capitata, native to the Brazilian cerrado, is underutilized for human consumption. The objective was to determine the physical characteristics of the fruit, centesimal composition, bioactive and antioxidant activity. Fruits obtained in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Diameter, height and weight were evaluated. The moisture was analyzed by gravimetry after oven drying, ashes by calcining in a muffle furnace, proteins by the Kjeldahl method, gravimetric lipids after extraction in ethyl ether, carbohydrates by difference and total energy value by conversion factors. Vitamin C, E and carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC, minerals by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry, Folin Ciocalteu solution phenolic compounds, anthocyanins by spectrophotometry and antioxidant capacity by the Radical DPPH. The fruits presented good pulp yield (68.59%), which has a high lipid content (3.42 g.100 g-1) and total energy (83.34 kcal.100 g-1). The pulp contains ß-carotene (8.56 mg.100 g-1), vitamin E (121.07 mcg.100 g-1) and high concentrations of vitamin C (53.57 mg.100 g-1), total phenolics (493, 6 mg.100 g-1) and copper (1.80 mg.100 g-1). Almond has a high value of total energy (457.72 kcal.100 g-1), vitamin E (1594.39 mcg.100 g-1) and minerals Cu (2.40 mg.100 g-1) and Mo (0.9.100 g-1). The pulp is a source of carotenoids, vitamin C, copper and total phenolics, both natural antioxidants.

Critical analysis of the indicators of the nutritional status of iodine in individuals and populations: a systematic review

Aline Carare Candido, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v.26, p.4859-4870.
Impact factor: 1.336

Abstract: The scope of this article is to evaluate the potentialities of indicators of the nutritional status of iodine in individuals or populations. The review was based on PRISMA. The search for articles occurred in January 2019, in the Pubmed, Scopus and LILACS databases, using the key words: indicators AND nutritional status AND iodine. The selection followed the stages of excluding the duplicates, reading the titles, abstracts and analyses in full. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated by the Downs and Black instrument. A total of 178 studies were identified and 20 were included. Urinary Iodine Concentration (UIC) was analyzed in 65% of the studies and was considered the best indicator to evaluate the nutritional status of iodine in the population. Thyroglobulin was determined in 20% of the studies and reflected the pre-existing state of iodine. Thyroid stimulating hormone was verified in 45% of the articles and was important for the surveillance of iodine deficiency among newborns. Only one study evaluated capillary iodine, useful for analyzing long-term dietary intake. In the evaluation of methodological quality, the lowest score was 12 and the highest 16, in 17 possible points. The use of UIC is recommended for the diagnosis of deficiency and excess of iodine in the population.

Data quality and arbovirus infection associated factors in pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Brazil A surveillance database analysis

Ariadne Barbosado Nascimento Einloft, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Mayumi Duarte Wakimoto, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Glauce Dias da Costa
One Health, v. 12, p. 1-9
Impact factor: 3.800

Abstract: The dengue surveillance system in Brazil has registered changes in the disease’s morbidity and mortality profile over successive epidemics. Vulnerable groups, such as pregnant women, have been particularly hard hit. This study assessed the quality of notifications of dengue cases among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in Brazil, in addition to discussing the factors associated with arbovirus infection in the group of pregnant women. We carried out a retrospective study of cases registered in the national arbovirus surveillance system between 2007 and 2017. The indicator for assessing quality was incompleteness. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between dengue during pregnancy and sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory variables. The incompleteness of the data in the notification form for dengue cases in women of childbearing age and pregnant women indicates a significant loss of information. Dengue was shown to be positively associated with Social Determinants of Health in both groups, with more severe effects among pregnant women. The incompleteness of the data can limit the quality of information from the notification system and the national assessment of the situation of the disease in women of childbearing age and pregnant women.

Dietary inflammatory index and mortality in hemodialysis patients by path analysis approach (NUGE-HD study)

Karla Pereira Balbino, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Aline Laje Wendling, Josefina Bressan, Shivappa Nitin, James R. Hebert, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Nutrition, v. 89, p. 1-6
Impact factor: 4.008

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interrelationships between dietary, nutritional, and inflammatory factors in predicting all-cause mortality among individuals in hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Methods: Participating in this study were 137 patients undergoing HD (58.4% men, 61.7 § 15.4 y of age) from the NUtrition and GEnetics on HemoDialysis outcomes (NUGE-HD study) cohort. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Dietary inflammatory index scores were calculated from a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Plasma C-reactive protein was used as an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by path analysis. Results: During the 2-y follow-up, 27 patients (19.7%) died. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (P = 0.01) and had lower body mass index (P = 0.04). In relation to direct (unmediated) associations, dietary inflammatory index (P = 0.049) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.016) were positively associated, whereas body mass index was negatively associated with mortality (P = 0.012). There were no indirect (mediated) associations of the variables evaluated with mortality. Conclusion: More proinflammatory diet and systemic inflammation have a direct association with mortality among patients undergoing HD therapy. Additionally, more proinflammatory diet is associated with unhealthy dietary pattern.

Dietary inflammatory index scores are associated with atherogenic risk in Brazilian schoolchildren

Lara Gomes Suhett, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Mariane Alves Silva, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2021
Impact factor: 4.022

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the association between the Children’sDietary Inflammatory Index (C-DIITM) scores and atherogenic risk in Brazilian schoolchildren. Design: A cross-sectional representative study. Three 24-h dietary recalls were performed to evaluate food consumption and to calculate C-DII scores. Blood samples were collected for the lipid profile analysis (serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (TAG)) and to determine atherogenic indexes (Castelli risk indexes I and II, lipoprotein combined index (LCI), and atherogenic index of plasma and atherogenic coefficient (AC)). A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic characteristics and screen time. Body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We compared the distributions of outcomes by C-DII categories usingmultivariable linear regression. Setting: Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Participants: Three hundred seventy-eight children between the ages of 8 and 9 years. Results: The mean C-DII score was 0·60± 0·94, and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 70 %. Childrenwith hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia had higher C-DII scores. The C-DII was directly associated with atherogenic risk. Every 1 SD of C-DII was associated with a 0·07 (0·01, 0·13), 1·94 (0·20, 3·67), 0·06 (0·002, 0·12) and 0·12 (0·02, 0·22) units higher TC:HDL cholesterol ratio, LCI, AC and accumulation of altered dyslipidaemia markers (high TC þ high LDL-cholesterol þ high TAG þ low HDL-cholesterol), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary inflammatory potential, as estimated by the C-DII, is directly associated with atherogenic risk in Brazilian schoolchildren. This results reinforce
the importance of effective nutritional policies to promote healthy eating habits and improve children’s lipid profiles

Dietary Selenium Intake and Type-2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study on CUME Project

João Pedro Viana Dias, Paulo de Souza Costa Sobrinho, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Josefina Bressan, Luciana Neri Nobre
Frontiers in Nutrition, v. 8, p 1-10
Impact Factor: 6.576

Abstract: Background and Aim: Previous studies have suggested that the specific association between selenium (Se) and diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se and type-2 diabetes (T2D) in the Brazilian cohort [Cohort f Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME)]. Methods and Results: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a large sample comprising 4,106 participants of the CUME project, a concurrent open cohort restricted to a highly educated population group, composed of graduates of federal institutions of higher education located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data on socioeconomic and dietary characteristics, as well as anthropometric measures, were collected from each subject for analysis. The sample was classified into energy-adjusted tertiles of dietary Se intake (μg/day). Differences in the continuous data were evaluated by the Kruskal–Wallis H-test (abnormal data), and the 2-test assessed differences in qualitative data. As there was no relationship between T2D and Se intake in the bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis was not performed. The prevalence of T2D in the studied population was 2.8%. The mean age was 36 years. Regarding gender, 1,209 are males and 2,807 are females. Among females, the mean Se intake was 165.12 μg/day and the mean intake was 157.4 μg/day. Among males, it was 168.4 μg/day. Significant differences were observed across all Se intake tertiles in terms of age, gender, activity level, alcohol intake, energy intake, sugar, carbohydrates, lipids, fiber, and energy-adjusted meat intake. However, no significant differences were observed across all Se intake tertiles in terms of BMI, smoking status, and T2D. The results indicated that there was no significant association between dietary Se intake and the prevalence of T2D. Conclusion: Dietary Se intake was not associated with the prevalence of T2D, despite the high intake of this micronutrient in the sample. These results contradict studies that identified the association between Se intake and T2D, with values of Se intake much lower than those observed in this study. Thus, this relationship seems to
remain controversial.

Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors: A cross-sectional study

Alessandra da Silva, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Sônia Lopes Pinto, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Aline Marcadenti, Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Bernardete Weber, Josefina Bressan
Nutrition, v. 89, p.1-7
Impact factor: 4.008

Abstract: Objectives: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) has been introduced as a useful tool to quantify the antioxidant content of a diet. However, few studies have evaluated the association of dTAC with cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with established CVD events. Thus, we aimed to investigate the presence of an association between dTAC values, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with previous CVD in a Brazilian multicenter study. Methods: This study has a cross-sectional design. We evaluated baseline data from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and food-consumption data were collected in face-to-face interviews. We estimated dTAC from the mean of two 24-h dietary recalls by values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power. Results: We evaluated 2346 participants, most of whom were men (58.4%), older adults (64.2%), and overweight (68.6%), and had coronary artery disease (92.4%). The mean dTAC was equal to 5.6 (interquartile range, 3.9-7.8) mmol/1000 kcal. Participants in the third dTAC tertile (9.2 mmol/1000 kcal) had a 22%, 59%, and 69% lower chance, respectively, of having hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and amputation due to arterial disease in comparison to the first tertile (3.4 mmol/1000 kcal). Conclusions: The dTAC was inversely associated with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and amputation due to arterial disease in individuals undergoing secondary care for CVD. Our results can guide strategies for the prevention of new CVD and its consequences.

Diet-induced obesity in animal models: points to consider and influence on metabolic markers

Mariana de Moura e Dias, Sandra Aparecida dos Reis, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Catarina Maria Nogueira de Oliveira Sediyama, Solange Silveira Pereira, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, José Alfredo Martinez, Fermín Ignacio Milagro
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, v.13, p.1-14
Impact factor: 3.320

Abstract: Overweight and obesity are a worldwide public health problem. Obesity prevalence has increased considerably, which indicates the need for more studies to better understand these diseases and related complications. Diet induced-obesity (DIO) animal models can reproduce human overweight and obesity, and there are many protocols used to lead to excess fat deposition. So, the purpose of this review was to identify the key points for the induction of obesity through diet, as well as identifying which are the necessary endpoints to be achieved when inducing fat gain. For this, we reviewed the literature in the last 6 years, looking for original articles that aimed to induce obesity through the diet. All articles evaluated should have a control group, in order to verify the results found, and had worked with Sprague–Dawley and Wistar rats, or with C57BL-/-6 mice strain. Articles that induced obesity by other methods, such as genetic manipulation, surgery, or drugs were excluded, since our main objective was to identify key points for the induction of obesity through diet. Articles in humans, in cell culture, in non-rodent animals, as well as review articles, articles that did not have obesity induction and book chapters were also excluded. Body weight and fat gain, as well as determinants related to inflammation, hormonal concentration, blood glycemia, lipid profile, and liver health, must be evaluated together to better determination of the development of obesity. In addition, to select the best model in each circumstance, it should be considered that each breed and sex respond differently to diet-induced obesity. The composition of the diet and calorie overconsumption are also relevant to the development of obesity. Finally, it is important that a non-obese control group is included in the experimental design.

Does the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and bone mass vary according to skin color in adults? Results of a Brazilian population-based study

Kátia Josiany Segheto, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Cristiane Junqueira de Carvalho, Fernanda Hansen, Mariana Papini Gabiatti, Adriana Maria Kakehasi, Giana Zarbato Longo
Archives of Osteoporosis, v.16, p. 1-10
Impact factor: 2.617

Abstract: Summary Skin color has been indicated as an important factor in determining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and consequently bone health. However, studies are controversial and scarce for mixed populations. Purpose/introduction To analyze the association of 25(OH)D with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD); and to investigate the presence of interaction with skin color in Brazilian adults. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted with adult individuals (20–59 years) of both genders. Bone health was assessed by dual energy radiological absortometry. Vitamin D status was measured using serum 25(OH)D. Skin color and other variables in the adjusted model were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Associations and interactions were evaluated using linear regression models stratified according to gender. Results Non-white men with vitamin D deficiency (< 20.0 ng/mL) have less bone mass than those with insufficiency and sufficiency for the femoral neck and hip sites. According to the adjusted regression analysis, the deficient status of 25(OH)D in men was associated with worse bone health for the lumbar spine sites (β = − 0.1; p = 0.006), femoral neck (β = − 0.08; p = 0.006), and hip (β = − 0.08; p = 0.009). No statistically significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and bone health in women. In addition, no statistical interaction was identified between skin color and vitamin D status in relation to bone health (p > 0.05 for all tests) in either gender and for all bone sites evaluated. Conclusion Deficient vitamin D status is associated with lower bone mass in adults with differences observed according to gender, but not according to skin color.

Dry heated whole sorghum flour (BRS 305) with high tannin and resistant starch improves glucose metabolism, modulates adiposity, and reduces liver steatosis and lipogenesis in Wistar rats fed with a high-fat high-fructose diet

Oscar David Medina Martinez, Jaqueline Maciel Vieira Theodoro, Mariana Grancieri, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Journal of Cereal Science, v. 99, p. 1-9
Impact factor: 3.616

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dry heated whole sorghum flour (BRS 305 hybrid) on insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, adiposity, steatosis, and liver lipogenesis in rats fed with a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF). Male Wistar rats (n = 10/group), 45–50 days old, were fed with AIN93-M diet, HFHF (31% saturated fat and 20% fructose) and HFHF + sorghum flour (replacing 50% of dietary fiber, 100% starch, 19.8% protein and 22.5% lipids in the experimental diet), for 10 weeks. The sorghum flour restored the effect of the HFHF diet, decreasing triglycerides, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver steatosis, and lipogenesis. Further, sorghum improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance and increasing the concentration of PPARα protein in the liver. Thus, the BRS 305 whole sorghum flour with high tannin and resistant starch showed potential as a functional food, since it improves glucose metabolism, modulates adiposity, and reduces liver steatosis and lipogenesis in Wistar rats fed with a high-fat high-fructose diet.

Effect of dietary advanced glycation end-products restriction on type 2 diabetes mellitus control: a systematic review

Julia Silva Oliveira, Carolina de Almeida, Ângela Maria Natal de Souza, Luciana Drumond da Cruz, Rita Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Nutrition Reviews, v.2021, p.1-5
Impact factor: 7.110

Abstract: Context: Reducing dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may favor diabetes control. Objective: Critically analyze studies about the effect of dietary AGEs restriction on inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Data Source: This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA methodology. The PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, using the terms “type 2 diabetes,” “advanced glycation end products” and “diet.” Data Extraction: Seven original studies were included in this review. The duration of the studies ranged from 1 day to 16 weeks. All extracted data were compiled, compared, and critically analyzed. Data Analysis: Glycemic variables were considered the primary outcomes. The secondary outcomes were glycation, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Although serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin values were lower after the consumption of AGEs restricted diets in most studies, there was a lack of unanimity regarding dietary AGEs’ positive effect on inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood glucose.

Effect of iodine suplementation in pregnancy on neurocognitive development on offspring in iodine deficiency areas: a systematic review

Almeida Abudo Leite Machamba, Francilene Maria Azeredo, Karen Oliveira Fracalossi, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Fracneschini
Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, v. 64, p. 352-367
Impact factor: 2.309

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of iodine supplementation during gestation on the neurocognitive development of children in areas where iodine deficiency is common. Materials and methods: Based on the PRISMA methodology, we conducted the search for articles in the PubMed, LILACS and Scopus databases, between March and April 2020, without limitation of dates. We used descriptors in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, without filters. Four clinical trials and four cohort articles were included in the review. Results: The maximum supplementation was 300 μg of potassium iodide per day. The Bayley scale and Children’s Communication Checklist-Short were used to assess neurodevelopment in children. There was no significant improvement in the children’s mental development index and behavioural development index in the supplemented group; however, the psychomotor development index (PDI) showed improvement in the poorer gross motor skills. We found differences in the response time to sound in the supplemented group living in mild deficiency areas. Conclusion: Daily supplementation with iodine can improve poor psychomotor development of children living in mild to moderate iodine deficiency areas. Thus, it is necessary to perform further studies to assess
the effect of supplementation on neurodevelopment before, during and after gestation in mild to moderate iodine deficiency areas.

Effect of the consumption of yacon flour and energy-restricted diet on glycation markers, and association between these markers and factors linked to obesity in adults with excess body weight: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Adriane Moreira Machado, Nayara Benedito Martins da Silva, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Nutrition, v. 2021, p.1-7
Impact factor: 4.008

Abstract: Objectives: Regardless of the positive effect of yacon on metabolic markers, this food contains fructose molecules, which can originate advanced glycation end products (AGEs). High AGEs serum concentrations can contribute to excess body weight. We evaluated the effect of consuming an energy-restricted diet and yacon flour on glycation markers concentrations, and the associations between these markers and factors linked to
obesity in adults with excess body weight. Methods: Twenty-six adults with excess body weight were included in this randomized, parallel, doubleblind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the control group (n = 13) or the yacon-flour group (n = 13), and daily consumed a breakfast drink either not containing or containing 25 g of yacon flour (8.7 g of fructooligosaccharides). Energy-restricted diets were prescribed for both groups. Biochemical markers, anthropometric variables, and body composition were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Results: AGEs and early glycation products did not increase in the yacon flour group. Soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE) decreased regardless of group. Besides, changes in AGEs were positively associated with changes in body fat (b = 0.04, P = 0.038) and in sRAGE, with insulin (b = 0.02, P = 0.035) and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (b = 0.01, P = 0.049). Conclusions: The consumption of 25 g of yacon flour associated with an energy-restricted diet did not increase concentrations of glycation markers. Changes in glycation markers were positively associated with changes in consolidated anthropometric and biochemical markers related to being overweight. Assessing glycation markers may be a useful strategy for monitoring responses to dietary interventions in subjects with excess body weight.

Effect of the ingestion of vegetable oils associated with energy-restricted normofat diet on intestinal microbiota and permeability in overweight women

Thalita Lin Netto Cândido, Laís Emilia da Silva, Flávia Galvão Cândido, Flávia Xavier Valente, Juliana Soares da Silva, Déborah Romaskevis Gomes Lopes, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Food Research International, v. 139, p.1-13
Impact factor: 6.475

Abstract: Previous studies suggest that the type of dietary fatty acid may modulate the intestinal bacterial ecosystem. However, this effect is still inconclusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intake of vegetable oils rich in different types of fatty acids, associated with energy-restricted normofat diets, on the composition of intestinal microbiota and permeability, on LPS concentrations, and fecal short chain fatty acids and pH. This was a 9 consecutive weeks (±5 days), randomized, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Overweight women received daily breakfast containing 25 mL of one of the test oils: soybean oil (n = 17), extra virgin olive oil (n = 19) or coconut oil (n = 16). Blood, fecal and urine samples were collected on the first and last day of the experiment for the analysis of the variables of interest. The consumption of the three oils did not affect the diversity and relative abundance of intestinal bacteria. We observed an increase in bacterial richness estimated by the Chao 1 index, and a reduction in the concentration of isovaleric fatty acid in the group that ingested soybean oil. Paracellular and transcellular permeability increased after the ingestion of extra virgin olive oil and coconut oil. However, LPS concentrations remained unchanged. The intake of different types of fatty acids associated with the energy-restricted normofat diet modestly affected the intestinal microbiota and permeability, without resulting in metabolic endotoxemia in overweight women.

Effects of acute and chronic nuts consumption on energy metabolism: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials

Yuliana Maria Franco Estrada, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Alessandra da Silva, Josefina Bressan
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v.2021, p.1-12
Impact factor: 3.483

Abstract: Nuts are high-energy density foods and are associated with beneficial effects on health, including weight control. Effects on resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and diet-induced thermogenesis are suggested mechanisms behind the effects of nuts consumption on weight control. Thus, we revised the randomised clinical trials that assessed acute and chronic nuts consumption effects on energy metabolism. Walnuts (22.1 g to 56 g) consumption appears to modulate energy metabolism markers differently depending on the dose and profile of the evaluated subject. In its turn, 56 g of high-oleic peanuts increased postprandial energy expenditure and thermic effect of food after three hours postprandial compared to consumption of conventional peanuts. Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, and a mix of nuts were the nuts studies in the chronic studies, which does not seem to influence energy metabolism markers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of other types of nuts consumption on energy metabolism.

Effects of Anthocyanin on Intestinal Health: A Systematic Review

Thaísa Agrizzi Verediano, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Maria Cristina Dias Paes, Elad Tako
Nutrients, v.13, p.1-20
Impact factor: 5.717

Abstract: Intestinal health relies on the association between the mucosal immune system, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Bioactive components that affect the gut microbiota composition, epithelial physical barrier and intestinal morphology were previously studied. The current systematic review evaluated evidence of anthocyanin effects and the ability to improve gut microbiota composition, their metabolites and parameters of the physical barrier; this was conducted in order to answer the question: “Does food source or extract of anthocyanin promote changes on intestinal parameters?”. The data analysis was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines with the search performed at PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases for experimental studies, and the risk of bias was assessed by the SYRCLE tool. Twenty-seven studies performed in animal models were included, and evaluated for limitations in heterogeneity, methodologies, absence of information regarding allocation process and investigators’ blinding. The data were analyzed, and the anthocyanin supplementation demonstrated positive effects on intestinal health. The main results identified were an increase of Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Firmicutes, an increase of short chain fatty acids production, a decrease of intestinal pH and intestinal permeability, an increase of the number of goblet cells and tight junction proteins and villi improvement in length or height. Thus, the anthocyanin supplementation has a potential effect to improve the intestinal health.

Effects of Concord grape juice flavor intensity and phenolic compound content on glycemia, appetite and cognitive function in adults with excess body weight: a randomized double-blind crossover trial. 

Olívia Gonçalves Leâo Coelho, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Hawi Debelo, JoLynne D Wightman, Mario G Ferruzzi, Richard D Mattes
Food & Function, v. 12, p.11469-11481.
Impact factor: 5.396

Abstract: Background & aims: Concord grape (Vitis lambrusca) juice (CGJ) contains a unique combination of polyphenolic compounds with diverse effects on human health. It also has an intense sensory profile that may modify food choice. Daily consumption of CGJ over 8 weeks reduced fasting blood glucose. However, the impact on 24h-postprandial glucose response from CGJ is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of CGJ flavor intensity and phenolic content on 24 h postprandial glucose concentrations, appetitive sensations, and cognitive function in adults with excess body weight when consumed alone or with a meal. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design study, participants consumed three types of beverages: 100% CGJ, a polyphenol-free grape flavored drink with the same flavor essence (LP) or a polyphenol-free grape flavored drink with reduced flavor essence (LPF) either without (trial I) or with (trial II) a meal. 24 h glucose was measured through continuous glucose monitoring. Phenolic metabolite excretion was assessed in 24 h urine samples. Appetite (hunger, thirst, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective consumption) and cognitive function (alertness, energetic, strength, calmness, and relaxation) were assessed hourly through visual analog scales. Results: Thirty-four adults completed trial I and 34 adults completed trial II. When consumed with a meal, beverages with customary flavor essence (CGJ and LP) reduced hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption and consumption of the polyphenol-free reduced flavor essence beverage was associated with higher 24 h glucose tAUC. No consistent effects were observed for cognitive outcomes. When consumed alone, CGJ was related to lower glycemic responses by those excreting a higher concentration of the phenolic metabolite iso/ferulic-3′-O-glucuronide, but in beverages without CG phenolics and reduced flavor essence, glycemia was higher among those excreting higher concentrations of caffeic acid-O-sulfate. Conclusions: Both natural phenolics and flavor essence of CGJ may help to moderate appetite and glycemia. Clinical Trials registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03409484 (trial I) and NCT03409497 (trial II)

Effects of Curcumin Supplementation on Inflammatory Markers, Muscle Damage and Spor Performance During Acute Physical Exercise in Sedentary Individuals: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

Kelly Aparecida Dias, Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Lívya Alves Oliveira, Stephanie Michelin Santana Pereira, Stefany da Silva Paes, Larissa Farias Monte, Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, v. 2021, p1-13
Impact factor: 6.543

Abstract: : Exhaustive and acute unusual physical exercise leads to muscle damage. Curcumin has been widely studied due to the variety of its biological activities, attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, it has shown positive effects on physical exercise practitioners. However, there is no literature consensus on the beneficial effects of curcumin in acute physical activities performed by sedentary individuals. Therefore, we systematically reviewed evidence from clinical trials on the main effects of curcumin supplementation on inflammatory markers, sports performance, and muscle damage during acute physical exercises in these individuals. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases, and only original studies were analyzed according to the PRISMA guidelines. The included studies were limited to supplementation of curcumin during acute exercise. A total of 5 studies were selected. Methodological quality assessments were examined using the SYRCLE’s risk-of-bias tool. Most studies have shown positive effects of curcumin supplementation in sedentary individuals undergoing acute physical exercise. Overall, participants supplemented with curcumin showed less muscle damage, reduced inflammation, and better muscle performance. The studies showed heterogeneous data and exhibited methodological limitations; therefore, further research is necessary to ensure curcumin supplementation benefits during acute and highintensity physical exercises. Additionally, mechanistic and highly controlled studies are required to improve the quality of the evidence and to elucidate other possible mechanisms

Effects of Iron and Zinc Biofortified Foods on Gut Microbiota In Vivo (Gallus gallus): A Systematic Review
Autores: Mariana Juste Contin Gomes, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Elad Tako
Nutrients, v.13, p1-13
Impact factor: 5.717
Abstract: Dietary iron and zinc deficiencies are a global health concern. Bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract depend on minerals to maintain their activities; thus, recent evidence suggests that biofortified foods can modulate the host’s beneficial bacterial taxa. The current review analyzed the research data that linked between iron and zinc biofortified foods and gut microbiota modulation. The data analysis was based on the PRISMA guidelines and the data search was performed at PubMed,Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases for experimental studies published from January 2010 until December 2020. The five selected studies were conducted in an experimental in vivo model (Gallus gallus). The identified and discussed research showed positive effects of biofortified foods on the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Further, an increase in short chain fatty acids producing bacterial populations as Lactobacillus and Ruminococcus, and a decrease in potentially pathogenic bacteria as Streptococcus, Escherichia, and Enterobacter was identified due to the consumption of biofortified foods. In conclusion, biofortified foods may contribute to improved gut health without increasing the colonization of pathogenic bacteria. The dietary inclusion of approximately 50% of iron/zinc biofortified foods has a significant beneficial effect on the gut microbiota. Additional studies in humans and animal models are warranted to further establish the suggested effects on the intestinal microbiome

Effects of whole peanut within an energy-restricted diet on inflammatory and oxidative processes in obese women: a randomized controlled trial.

Cristiane Gonçalves de Oliveira Fialho, Ana Paula Boroni Moreira, Josefina Bressan, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Richard Mattes, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa
Journal of the Science of food and Agriculture, v. 2021, p.1-7
Impact factor: 3.639

Abstract: Background: Peanut consumption has little effect on body weight, despite its high energy density and is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that the consumption of whole peanut would be associated with greater improvements in body composition, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Methodology: Twenty-four women with obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg m-2 ], 33.1 ± 8.7 years old, were assigned to three groups and consumed 56 g of whole peanut (WP), skinned peanut (SP), and no peanut (NP) and consumed energy-restricted diets (250 kcal d-1 less than their customary diet) for 8 weeks. Results: WP group lost an average of 3.2 kg, while SP group lost 2.6 kg and the NP group 1.8 kg. However, only the groups that consumed peanuts showed a significant reduction in BMI. WP group presented lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, total lean mass, and total body fat than the SP group in the eighth week. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after 4 weeks of intervention, which was maintained in week-8 for the WP and SP groups. In addition, there was an improvement in platelets and plasma homocysteine with WP group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the regular intake of the whole peanut as part of an energy-restricted diet showed health benefits since it enhanced body weight loss, besides improving body composition and reducing cholesterol, platelets, and homocysteine concentrations.

Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (hmb) and resistance training on body fat and lipid metabolism signaling pathways.

Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Pelúzio, Victor Neiva Lavorato, Tiago Ferreira Leal, Miguel Araújo Carneiro Júnior, Diego Milhomem de Carvalho, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Antônio José Natali
Revista Chilena de Nutricion, v.48, p.396-404.
Impact factor: 0.511

Abstract: Excess body fat is a serious problem for increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as obesity, compromising the health and quality of life of the population. In this sense, resistance training (RT) is type of physical exercise which improvesbody composition by increasing lean mass and reducing fat mass. RT in combination with nutrition (i.e. protein supplementation) is a key intervention to improve body fat metabolism and reducing obesity. Concerning protein supplementation, the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the branched-chain amino acid leucine that has demonstrated positive effects on body fat reduction. However, the effects of combining HMB supplementation with RT related to adipose tissue metabolic activity are controversial and warrant further investigation. This study analyzed the effects of HMB supplementation associated with RT on body fat concentration and lipid metabolism signaling pathways.

Evaluation of the efficacy of probiotic VSL#3 and synbiotic VSL#3 and yacon-based product in reducing oxidative stress and intestinal permeability in mice induced to colorectal carcinogenesis

Bruna Cristina Dos Santos Cruz, Luís Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Letícia De Nadai Marcon, Kelly Aparecida Dias, Leonardo Borges Murad, Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves , Célia Lúcia de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Journal of Food Science, v.86, p.1448-1462
Impact factor: 3.167

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic VSL#3 isolated or associated with a yacon-based product (synbiotic) on oxidative stress modulation and intestinal permeability in an experimental model of colorectal carcinogenesis. Forty-five C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: control (standard diet AIN-93 M); probiotic (standard diet AIN-93Mand multispecies probiotic VSL#3, 2.25 × 109 CFU), and synbiotic (standard diet AIN-93 M with yacon-based product, 6% fructooligosaccharides and inulin, and probiotic VSL#3, 2.25 × 109 CFU). The experimental diets were provided for 13 weeks. The probiotic and the yacon-based product showed antioxidant activity, with the percentage of DPPH radical scavenging equal to 69.7 ± 0.4% and 74.3 ± 0.1%, respectively. These findings contributed to reduce hepatic oxidative stress: the control group showed higher concentration of malondialdehyde (1.8- fold, p = 0.007 and 1.5-fold, p = 0.035) and carbonylated protein (2-fold, p = 0.008 and 5.6-fold, p = 0.000) compared to the probiotic and synbiotic groups, respectively. Catalase enzyme activity increased 1.43-fold (p = 0.014) in synbiotic group. The crypt depth increased 1.2-fold and 1.4-fold with the use of probiotic and synbiotic, respectively, compared to the control diet (p = 0.000). These findings corroborate the reduction in intestinal permeability in the probiotic and synbiotic groups, as measured by the percentage of urinary lactulose excretion (CON: 0.93 ± 0.62% × PRO: 0.44 ± 0.05%, p = 0.048; and CON: 0.93 ± 0.62% × SYN: 0.41 ± 0.12%, p = 0.043). In conclusion, the probiotic and synbiotic showed antioxidant activity, which contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress markers. In addition, they protected the mucosa from damage caused by chemical carcinogen and reduced intestinal permeability. Practical Application: The relationship between intestinal health and the occurrence of various organic disorders has been demonstrated in many.

Factors associated with alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use among Brazilian undergraduate students

Mayla Paula Torres Simplicio, Leonardo Barbosa e Silva, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, v.74, p. 1-9

Abstract: Objectives: to analyze the factors associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among Brazilian undergraduate students. Methods: observational, cross-sectional study, with convenience sampling, conducted in 2014/2015, involving institutional data and a self-completed online questionnaire, analyzed using measures of frequency, central tendency/dispersion and logistic regression. Results: among 126,326 students, 62.8% reported alcohol use; 11%, tobacco; and 7.5%, illicit drugs. Several academic factorssuch as not residing with family (sororities [alcohol: aOR:2.38;95%CI:2.28-2.48; tobacco: AOR:2.20;95%CI:2.09-2.33; illicit drugs: AOR:2.53;95%CI:2.38-2.70]), acting in university movements (student [alcohol: AOR:1.74;95%CI:1.65-1.83; tobacco: AOR:1.97;95%CI:1.86-2.08; illicit drugs: AOR:2.43;95%CI:2.28-2.59] and religious [alcohol: AOR:0.28;95%CI:0.26-0.29; tobacco: AOR:0.23;95%CI:0.21-0.26; illicit drugs: AOR:0.18;95%CI:0.16-0.21]) and lack of discipline/study habit (alcohol: AOR:1.41;95%CI:1.37-1.45; tobacco: AOR:1.53;95%CI:1.46-1.59; illicit drugs: AOR:1.85;95%CI:1.76-1.94) – were associated with the use of the three categories of substances. Conclusions: we identified that a number of academic factors are associated with licit and illicit drug use. These findings may help in designing preventive strategies among college students.

Factors associated with the nutritional status of iodine in the maternal-infant group: a systematic review

Aline Carare Candido, Silvia Eloíza Priore, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, 26, p. 1381-1390
Impact factor: 1.336

Abstract: This article sets out to identify the socio-demographic and nutritional factors associated ith the nutritional status of iodine in the maternal-infant group. The review was based on the Prisma method and the Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Lilacs databases were consulted. The search was conducted in December 2018, using the key words nutritional status, iodine, infant, pregnant and lactating. The selection followed the stages of excluding duplicated articles, reading the titles, abstracts and texts in full. A total of 1,500 studies were identified and 26 met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the questionnaire proposed by Downs and Black. There was an association between the sociodemographic factors of income, ducation, maternal and gestational age, uniformity and place of residence in rural or urban areas with the nutritional state of iodine. In relation to dietary factors, the consumption of supplements, odized salt and dietary sources of iodine, especially dairy products, play a protective role to avoid the deficiency. It is necessary to create more specific and effective strategies that address all the factors that affect the nutritional state of iodine to avoid the disorders resulting from the deficiency.

Factors related to the age of completion of the first examination of mammography in women attending in public service of Belo Horizonte – MG

Catarina Maria Nogueira de Oliveira Sediyama, Manoela Maciel dos Santos Dias, Mariana de Moura e Dias, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Renata Nascimento Freitas, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Revista Eletrônica Acervo Saúde, v.13, p. 1-9

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with completion of the first mammogram at a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: We selected 378 women in a referral service. Anthropometric measurements were taken and a questionnaire with questions about lifestyle, presence of comorbidities and aspects related to reproductive life, was applied. Results: Urban origin, the highest level of education and income, pre menopause, the absence of hormone replacement therapy, diabetes mellitus, family history of breast cancer, oral contraceptive use, overweight or obesity and smoking were associated (p <0.05) with the younger age of completion of the first mammogram. Conclusion: It is suggested that there is a direct association between early mammography and the higher level of education, menopause and obesity. However the rural areas, the absence of the use of oral contraceptives and eutrophic showed an inverse association.

Food Availability and Food and Nutrition (In)Security of families providing for the National School Feeding Program (PNAE).

Fabiana Aparecida de Matos Calixto, Paula Torres Trivellato, Elizangela da Silva Miguel, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Revista de Nutrição, v. 34, p.1-11
Impact factor: 0.624

Abstract: Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the availability of food and the situation of food and nutritional (in)security in families of farmers who provide for the National School Feeding Program. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with families of farmers who supplied Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar from 2011 to 2016 in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. To assess Food Insecurity, the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to the person responsible for purchasing and producing meals in the family. The nutritional aspect was analyzed through the measurement of hemoglobin to check for anemia among family members and using the household food availability survey, where it was possible to analyze the amount of calories available for consumption, as well as the origin and kind of food. Results: 27 families were evaluated, totalizing 91 individuals. With the Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar, it was found that 25.9% of the families were in light food insecurty situation. When caloric availability was assessed, 11.0% of families were considered insecure. In contrast, 59.0% of families had high calorie availability per capita (>3000 calories). Of the total households, 14.8% had more than 50.0% of the calories available for consumption coming from their own production. The foods most commonly produced for self-consumption were fresh vegetables, which are the most common ones supplied to Programa Nacional de Alimentação. In addition, the main source of kilocalories for the families were fresh and minimally processed foods. The presence of anemia in at least 1 resident was detected in 29.6% of households, with a negative correlation between the hemoglobin value (g/dL) and the Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar score. Conclusion: It appears that the majority of the families of farmers supplying Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar are in a situation of Food and Nutritional Security, both by Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar and by the household availability of food. However, we cannot ignore the percentage of insecure families, since this situation can lead to other problems. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly assess the family situation of Fodd Insecurty and encourage production for self-consumption so that it contributes to food availability and quality. For this reason, the we highlight relevance of programs that strengthen the production and commercialization of food from family farming

Food Consumption and Characteristics Associated in a Brazilian Older Adult Population: A Cluster Analysis.

Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Luciene Fátima Fernandes Almeida, Carla J Machado, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Maria Sônia Lopes Duarte, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Frontiers in Nutrition, v. 8, p.1-9
Impact factor: 6.576

Abstract: Epidemiological studies support diet as a factor in the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases, whose occurrence increases with age due to the poor choices or the adoption of a monotonous diet. The aim of this study was to construct the food consumption profiles of older adults of a Brazilian city to identify the
main food groups and eating habits that contribute to these profiles and to estimate its association with socioeconomic characteristics, health and use of health services, lifestyle, and anthropometric indicators. This is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 621 community-dwelling older adults (60 years) in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The food consumption profile was the dependent variable obtained from a Food Frequency Questionnaire, utilizing the two-step cluster method. The multiple multinomial logistic regression model was used to estimate the independent associations, obtaining the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Three clusters were generated, namely, (1) “unhealthy” (2) “less unhealthy,” and (3) “fairly healthy.” The cluster “unhealthy” was characterized by a regular consumption of beans, fats, fatty/processed meats, and whole milk. The factors independently associated with this cluster were lower education level, lower individual income, history of at least one doctor’s appointment in the year preceding this study, and being a former smoker. The cluster “less unhealthy” was characterized by a regular consumption of beans, green vegetables, vegetables and fruits, as well as fats, fatty/processed meats, and whole milk. The factors independently associated with the “less unhealthy” cluster were lower education level and history of at least six doctor’s appointments in the prior year. The cluster “fairly healthy” was characterized by the same pattern of “less unhealthy,” except for skim milk and low-fat dairy products. The evidence of the associations indicates the profile of older adults who require greater attention and care related to improved nutrition. The illiterate or semi-literate aged individuals, those with low income, and those who neglect to seekmedical advicemust be the focus of healthy eating actions and programs.

Food preferences and aversions of patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Jéssica Viana Hinkelmann, Luiza de Oliveira Possa, Cristiane Alves de Oliveira, Bruna Soares Faria, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN,v. 2021
Impact factor: 7.324

Abstract: Background & aims: This longitudinal, qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study aimed to identify and understand the food preferences and aversions arising from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy treatment. Methods: An open and individual interview was carried out with patients diagnosed with hematological diseases or cancer, submitted to HSCT, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy treatment. The participants answered the following questions: “Have you experienced any changes in taste since the beginning of radiotherapy/chemotherapy?“; “Have you experienced any strange taste in your mouth, aversion or preference for a certain food that did not exist before the beginning of radiotherapy/chemotherapy?” The software IRAMUTEQ (R Interface for Multidimensional Analysis of Texts and Questionnaires) version 0.7 alpha 2 was used for textual analysis, with similarity analysis and word cloud. Results: One hundred and forty six patients were included in the study, 50% (n ¼ 73) female and 73% (n ¼ 50) elderly. The main words reported by the participants in regards to food aversions were “meat”, “beef” and “chicken”, which are related to dysphagia. Regarding food preferences, the most mentioned words were “fruits”, “juices” and “soups”, whose consumption was associated with an improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, especially nausea.

Germinated millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR.) improves adipogenesis and glucose metabolism and maintains thyroid function in vivo

Jaqueline Maciel Vieira Theodoro, Oscar David Medina Martinez, Mariana Grancieri, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Mirella Lima Binoti, Amanda M. Dias Martins, Carlos Wanderlei Piler Carvalho, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food & Function, v. 12, p.6083-6090
Impact factor: 5.396

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of germinated millet flour on adipogenesis, insulin resistance, glucose tolerance and thyroid function in Wistar rats fed with a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHF). The experiment was divided into two phases. Phase 1: control group, which received an AIN-93M diet (n = 10) and HFHF group (n = 20), which received a diet rich in saturated fat (31%) and fructose (20%), for eight weeks. Phase 2: intervention: the control group maintained the AIN-93M diet (n = 10) and the HFHF group was divided into two groups: the HFHF (n = 10) and the germinated millet group (n = 10), for 10 weeks. The germinated millet flour maintained (p > 0, 05) the plasma levels of thyroid hormones, increased (p < 0.05) the insulin receptor (INSR) mRNA expression, protein kinase B (AKT) mRNA expression and the phospho-AKT1 protein concentration, phosphofructokinase (PFK) mRNA, pyruvate kinase (PK) mRNA and activated protein kinase (AMPK) mRNA expression, and the brown adipose tissue and reduced (p < 0.05) the glucose triglyceride index (TyG), glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and hypercorticosteronemia, compared to the HFHF group. These effects contributed to reduce the gluconeogenesis, hyperinsulinemia and adiposity. Thus, germinated millet flour is a good alternative for modulating the adipogenesis and glucose metabolism, without interfering with the thyroid hormones, in rats with an insulin resistance condition with a high-fat high-fructose diet.

Germinated millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, and liver steatosis in rats fed with high-fat high-fructose diet

Jaqueline Maciel Vieira Theodoro, Oscar David Medina Martinez, Mariana Grancieri, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Amanda M.Dias Martins, Desirrê Morais Dias, Carlos Wanderlei Piler Carvalho, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Journal of Cereal Science, v.99, p.1-8
Impact factor: 3.616

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of germinated millet flour on inflammation, oxidative stress, adiposity, and liver steatosis in Wistar rats fed with a high-fat high-fructose diet. In phase 1 of the experiment (8 weeks) the animals were separated into a control group with an AIN-93M diet (n = 10) and a high-fat high-fructose group (HFHF) (n = 20) with a diet rich in saturated fat (31%) and fructose (20%). In phase 2 (10 weeks), the control group was maintained on the AIN-93M diet (n = 10) and the HFHF group was divided into HFHF group (HFHF diet, n = 10) and the Millet group (HFHF with germinated millet flour replacing 43.6% dietary fiber, 100% starch, 36% protein and 39% oil in the experimental diet, n = 10). The germinated millet flour reduced (p < 0.05), in comparison with HFHF group, the adiposity (24.18 ± 4.45g to millet and 32.89 ± 8.46g to HFHF), triglycerides (100.00 ± 17.93g to millet and 147.8 ± 21.57g to HFHF), uric acid, ALT, NF-κB (131.9 ± 97.14 pg/ ml to millet and 346.3 ± 58.88 pg/ml to HFHF), TNF-α (98.80 ± 19.90 pg/ml to millet and 141.4 ± 25.12 pg/ml to HFHF), platelet/lymphocyte and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, liver steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate (0.1880 ± 0.07 pg/ml to millet and 1.269 ± 0.17 pg/ml to HFHF), MDA levels, and liver collagen deposition. Further, germinated millet increased (p < 0.05) IL-10 (1511 ± 528.50 pg/ml to millet and 483.8 ± 91.59 pg/ml to HFHF), PPARα protein, total antioxidant capacity of the liver (0.2825 ± 0.04 pg/ml to millet and 0.2075 ± 0.05 pg/ml to HFHF) and the activity of SOD and catalase, compared to HFHF group. Thus, germinated millet flour was able to reduce adiposity and liver steatosis and presented anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which highlight its functional biological effects.

Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and associated factors in individuals with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus

Luiza Delazari Borges, Luma de Oliveira Comini, Laura Camargo de Oliveira, Heloísa Helena Dias, Emily de Souza Ferreira, Clara Regina Santos Batistelli, Glauce Dias da Costa, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Rodrigo Gomes da Silva, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Journal of Nutritional Science, v.10, p. 1-6

Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are among the main causes of death in Brazil and worldwide. The literature indicates the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) as an accessible alternative for the identification of cardiovascular and metabolic risk. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with HTWP in individuals diagnosed with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). A cross-sectional study was conducted with individuals diagnosed with AH and/or DM2. The study data were collected through semi-structured interviews containing sociodemographic information, lifestyle, health care, in addition to anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical blood tests. The prevalence of HTWP was estimated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with HTWP. Of the 788 individuals analysed, 21⋅5 % had the HTWP. In the adjusted model, the following variables remained associated with a greater chance of presenting HTWP: sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Being female increased the chance of HTWP by 7⋅7 times (OR 7⋅7; 95 % CI 3⋅9, 15⋅2). The one-year increase in age increased the chance of HTWP by 4 % (OR 1⋅04; 95 % CI 1⋅02, 1⋅06). The addition of 1 mg/dl of VLDL-c increased the chance of HTWP by 15 % (odds ratio (OR) 1⋅15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1⋅12, 1⋅18), as well as the increase of 1 kg/m2 in the BMI increased the chance of this condition by 20 % (OR 1⋅20; 95 % CI 1⋅15, 1⋅27). The prevalence of HTWP was associated with females, older age, higher BMI, higher VLDL-c and risk waist/height ratio.

Inflammatory Biomarkers and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: a Systematic Review

Ariane Ribeiro de Freitas Rocha, Núbia de Souza Morais, Silvia Eloíza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Inflammation, v. 21, p.1-17
Impact factor: 4.092

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been prevalent among adolescents. The association between the concentration of inflammatory markers and the individual components of the metabolic syndrome indicates that inflammation, when there is no recent or ongoing disease, mediated by an inflammatory process, is an event that may precede the development of metabolic disorders in teenagers. The objective of this study is to verify the association of inflammatory biomarkers with the components of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. From a search of 3 databases, 13 articles met the study inclusion criteria. Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. The evaluated inflammatory biomarkers are related to the components of MetS (insulin resistance, central and visceral obesity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia), which may increase the risk of developing the syndrome in adolescents. The results of this review are of clinical relevance, since the evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers in the presence of metabolic alterations can help to identify the risk factors that lead to the progression of MetS in adolescents.

Influence of dietary patterns on the metabolically healthy obesity phenotype: A Systematic Review

Darlene Larissa de Souza Vilela, Pâmela Gracielle da Fonseca, Sônia Lopes Pinto, Josefina Bressan
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, v. 8 p.1-10
Impact factor: 4.222

Abstract: Aims: In many individuals (35%) obesity is not accompanied by cardiometabolic disorders, a condition referred to as metabolically healthy obesity. Since the effectiveness of dietary interventions for this condition is not well established, this study reviews the influence of dietary patterns on the phenotype of metabolically healthy obesity in adults and elderly. Data Synthesis: The review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO. The search was conducted in the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct, LILACS, and SciELO databases. A total of 236 articles were identified, seven of which were selected for synthesis after application of the eligibility criteria. Conclusions: The overall result found out in this synthesis was that the greater adherence to healthy eating patterns was considered a preventive to the transition from metabolically healthy obesity to metabolic unhealthy obese phenotypes, by improving metabolic health, and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality from all causes. In contrast, unhealthy eating patterns resulted in increased inflammation and risks of developing noncommunicable diseases. This review indicates that adherence to healthy eating patterns may interfere with metabolic phenotypes of obesity and positively affect metabolically healthy obesity.

Influence of dietary total antioxidant capacity on the association between smoking and hypertension in Brazilian graduates (CUME project).
Thais S. Sabião, Josefina Bressan, Adriano Marçal Pimenta, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Fernando L. P. Oliveira, Raquel D. Mendonça, Julia Cristina Cardoso Carraro, Aline S. Aguiar
NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, v.31, p.2628-2636
Impact factor: 4.222
Abstract: Background and aims: Hypertension (HTN) is a chronic non-communicable disease influenced by non-modifiable risk factors, such as sex and age, as well as modifiable risk factors such as lifestyle, including diet and smoking. Moreover, diet quality among smokers is worse than that of non-smokers, mainly in terms of antioxidant content. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate whether dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) influences the association between smoking and HTN. Methods and results: This cross-sectional study included 4303 graduates (69.35% women) from the Cohort of Minas Gerais Universities (CUME) project. An online food frequency questionnaire was administered to participants, and dTAC was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power method. In the questionnaires, individuals reported smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, previous HTN diagnosis, and use of antihypertensive drugs. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval between smoking and HTN, stratified by the median dTAC. Current and former smokers had higher dTAC values despite their lower fruit intake. Moreover, coffee was the main contributor to dTAC among them. Smoking was associated with a higher likelihood of HTN, mainly among individuals with a higher dTAC. However, after exclusion of coffee antioxidant capacity, there was an association between only smoking and HTN in individuals with lower dTAC. Conclusions: The controversial association between higher dTAC and HTN can result from high coffee intake. Higher dTAC without coffee intake may mitigate the association between smoking and HTN in this population.

Is dietary iodine intake excessive according to the theoretical model of the healthy dietary intake pattern in pregnant women and schoolchildren: water, salt or food?

Aline Carare Candido, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno Fontes, Eliana Carla Gomes De Souza, Maria Sonia Lopes Duarte, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Regina Célia Rodrigues de Miranda Milagres ,Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Frontiers in Nutrition, v.8, p.
Impact factor: 6.576

Abstract: Introduction: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause hypothyroidism and goiter; in schoolchildren, it can cause reduced intelligence quotient. In excess, iodine can cause thyroiditis, goiter, and Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism. Currently, schoolchildren and pregnant women are classified as risk groups for excessive iodine intake and iodine deficiency, respectively. Thus, determining iodine from all sources of consumption is important for intervention planning. Objective: To construct a theoretical model for the iodine intake of schoolchildren and pregnant women of a city in the Zona da Mata Mineira region, considering a healthy diet, salt consumption and water intake. Methodology: The dietary iodine intake of pregnant women was analyzed based on a dietary iodine table compiled from an international database. A dietary plan was prepared following the Brazilian Food Guide. Iodine concentration of different salt brands sold in local establishments was checked, and drinking water samples from healthcare facilities were analyzed. A descriptive and exploratory statistical analysis was performed and the results were presented in absolute and relative frequencies, and measures of central tendency and dispersion. Results: According to the proposed diet, pregnant women and schoolchildren would have a daily intake of 71.6 μg and 71 μg, respectively. Thirteen salt brands were evaluated, 69.2% complied with the legislation and the mean iodine content was 29.88 mg. The mean concentration of iodine in water was 25 μg iodine/liter and 14 μg iodine/liter, respectively, in summer and autumn. Considering the intake of food, salt, and drinking water according to the proposed dietary plan, the daily intake for pregnant women would be 279.5 and 253.5 μg for schoolchildren. Conclusion: The daily iodine intake of schoolchildren and pregnant women according to this theoretical model was excessive, considering a healthy dietary pattern. This theoretical model can guide actions and public policies aimed at targeting all forms of iodine intake.

Kefir and Intestinal Microbiota Modulation: Implications in Human Health

Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Mariana de Moura e Dias, José Alfredo Martinez, Fermín I. Milagro
Frontiers in Nutrition, v. 8, p.1-15
Impact factor: 6.576

Abstract: In the last decades changes in the pattern of health and disease in Latin America and in the world has been observed, with an increase in cases of chronic non-communicable diseases. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition can contribute to the development of these diseases and be useful in their management. In this context, the consumption of fermented foods with probiotic properties, such as kefir, stands out due to its gut microbiota-modulating capacity. There is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir since it can be marketed as a natural beverage containing health-promoting bacteria and has been gaining international popularity in Latin America. Also the consumption of these drinks in Latin America seems to be even more relevant, given the socioeconomic situation of this population, which highlights the need for disease prevention at the expense of its treatment. In this narrative review, we discuss how kefir may work against obesity, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, cardiovascular disorders, immunity, and neurological disorders. Peptides, bioactive compounds and strains occurring in kefir, can modulate gut microbiota composition, low-grade inflammation and intestinal permeability, which consequently may generate health benefits. Kefir can also impact on the regulation of organism homeostasis, with a direct effect on the gut-brain axis, being a possible strategy for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to standardize these bioactive compounds and better elucidate the mechanisms linking kefir and intestinal microbiota modulation. However, due to the benefits reported, low cost and ease of preparation, kefir seems to be a promising approach to prevent and manage microbiota-related diseases in Latin America and the rest of the world.

Lactobacillus paracasei DTA81, a cholesterol-lowering strain having immunomodulatory activity, reveals gut microbiota regulation capability in BALB/c mice receiving high-fat diet.

Armin Tarrah, Bruna Cristina dos Santos Cruz, Roberto Sousa Dias, Vinicius da Silva Duarte, Shadi Pakroo, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Viviana Corich, Alessio Giacomini, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula
Journal of Applied Microbiology, v.2021, p.1-16
Impact factor: 3.772

Abstract: Aims: In-vitro/In-vivo evaluation of cholesterol-lowering probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei DTA81 and the possible connection with the gut microbiota modulation. Methods and Results: In the present study, strain DTA81 has been evaluated for the possible influence on blood lipid and glucose concentrations, modulation of the immune system, gastrointestinal survivability and modulation of gut microbiota in BALB/c mice receiving a high-fat diet. After 6 weeks of treatment, a significant reduction of total cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) among animals treated with L. paracasei DTA81 has been recorded. Comparison of colon tissue levels of different cytokines revealed a significant reduction of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. The comparison of gut microbiota using the 16S rRNA approach indicated that the treatment with L. paracasei DTA81 significantly increased the taxa Bacteroidetes and Coprococcus. Moreover, the genome of DTA81 was sequenced for the insilico assessment, and the analysis indicated the presence of cholesterol assimilation-related genes as well as the absence of negative traits such as transmissible antibiotic resistance genes, plasmids and prophage regions. Conclusion: The outcome of this study revealed the in-vitro and in-vivo properties of L. paracasei DTA81 and the possible mechanism between consumption of this strain, the abundance of Bacteriodetes/Coprococcus taxa, immunomodulatory activity and the subsequent reduction of cholesterol/FBS in BALB/c mice. Significance and Impact of the Study: Lactobacillus paracasei DTA81 as a nonpharmacological potential probiotic supplement can influence metabolic homeostasis in individuals, particularly those adopting high-fat diets, and it can contribute to reduce coronary heart disease.

Lifestyle and eating habits before and during COVID-19 quarantine in Brazil

Tamires CM Souza, Lívya Alves Oliveira, Marina M Daniel, Lívia G Ferreira, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Juliana C Liboredo, Lucilene R Anastácio
Public Health Nutrition, v.2021, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 4.022

Abstract: Objective: To assess changes in daily habits, food choices and lifestyle of adult Brazilians before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: This observational study was carried out with Brazilian adults through an online questionnaire 5 months after the social distance measures implementation. The McNemar, McNemar–Bowker and Wilcoxon tests were used to investigate differences before and during the COVID pandemic period, adopting the statistical significance of P < 0·05. Setting: Brazil. Participants: Totally, 1368 volunteers aged 18þ years. Results: The volunteers reported a lower frequency of breakfast, morning and lunch snacks (P < 0·05) and a higher frequency of evening snacks and other meal categories during the pandemic period (P < 0·05). The results showed an increase in the consumption of bakery products, instant meals and fast food, while the consumption of vegetables and fruits decreased (P < 0·005). There was a significant increase in the frequency of consumption of alcoholic beverages (P < 0·001), but a reduction in the dose (P < 0·001), increased frequency of smoking (P = 0·007), an increase in sleep and screen time in hours and decrease in physical activity (P < 0·001). Conclusions: It was possible to observe an increase in screen time, hours of sleep, smoking and drinking frequency. On the other hand, there was a reduction in the dose of alcoholic beverages but also in the practice of physical activity. Eating habits also changed, reducing the performance of daytime meals and increasing the performance of nighttime meals. The frequency of consumption of instant meals and fast food has increased, while consumption of fruits and vegetables has decreased.

Low‑grade albuminuria in adult and elderly individuals with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension accompanied by Primary Health Care.

Matheus Augusto Soares de Resende, Emily de Souza Ferreira, Heloísa Helena Dias, Daniel Souza Santos, Clara Regina Santos Batistelli, Luiza Delazari Borges, Luma de Oliveira Comini, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Glauce Dias da Costa, Eunice Ferreira da Silva, Rodrigo Gomes da Silva, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Scientific Reports, v.11, p.1-6
Impact factor: 4.379

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and arterial hypertension (AH) are the two main clinical conditions related to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); disease also identify by the levels of low-grade albuminuria (LGA). Few studies have simultaneously investigated the associations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with LGA. Our study aimed to investigate and compare the association of HbA1c and FPG with the probability of LGA in adult and elderly individuals with DM and AH, within the scope of Primary Health Care (PHC). Cross-sectional study involving 737 Brazilians individuals previously diagnosed with hypertension and/or diabetes. Tests for HbA1c, FPG and LGA were performed. LGA was defined as the highest quartile of albumin urinary (≥ 13 mg/g) among individuals with urinary LGA < 30 mg / g. A significant increase in the prevalence of LGA was found with increasing levels of HbA1c (p < 0.001). There was a significant association of HbA1c with LGA (p < 0.001) and increased probability of LGA for participants with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% compared to those with Hba1c < 5.7% (OR [95% CI]: 2.43 [1.32–4.46], p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors, except when adjusted for FPG (p = 0.379 and p = 0.359, respectively). HbA1c and FPG were significantly associated in a collinear manner with an increased probability of LGA in adult and elderly individuals with DM and AH

Macronutrients, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds in fresh and dehydrated basil (Ocimum basilicum) and its hot and cold infusions.

Poliana Miranda Roberto, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Soraia Silva Pinheiro, Eliana Carla Gomes de Souza, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana
Acta Scientiarum. Technology, v.43, p. 1-10
Impact factor: 0.550

Abstract: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is one of the most popular plants cultivated worldwide. It is a good source of natural antioxidants and contains significant amounts of important phytochemicals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the macronutrients, minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds of fresh and dehydrated basil and its hot and cold infusions. The basil presented high moisture (94.12%) and low lipid (0.20%), carbohydrates (5.25%) and dietary fibers (2.33%) content. There was no difference in vitamin C concentrations, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity between fresh and dehydrated basil and between the hot and cold infusions (p > 0.05). Potassium and calcium were the most prevalent minerals in dehydrated basil. The consumption of basil, especially in dehydrated form, can contribute significantly to the daily intake of minerals, vitamins C and E, and infusions are not a relevant choice of consumption to achieve nutritional recommendations.

Maternal overweight and its relation with child?s anthropometric índices 

Marcela Martins Soares, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil, v. 21, p.379-388

Abstract: Objectives: to investigate the relation between maternal overweight and child’s anthropometric indices, identifying the interaction with the child’s age. Methods: a cross-sectional study with mothers and their children under 2 years old. The mothers’ body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio was calculated. In children, we calculated height/age (H/A), body mass index/age (BMI/A), weight/height (W/H) and weight/age (W/A) indices. The means of the anthropometric indices of children with excess weight and maternal cardiometabolic risk were compared. Mothers and children’s anthropometric indices were correlated. Linear regression models were proposed. We investigated the child’s age interaction with anthropometric variables of the dyad. Results: the means of BMI/A and W/H were higher in children of overweight mothers and the means of BMI/A, W/H and W/A were higher when mothers had increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases. There was an association of maternal weight and height with the W/A index; maternal BMI with W/H; maternal height with H/A; maternal weight, BMI and waist circumference with BMI/A. The children’s age did not interact with the assessed parameters. Conclusion: children under 2 years of age, whose mothers are overweight, tend to show
changes in weight, regardless of age.

Microbial community dynamics of fermented kefir beverages changes over time.

Poliana Guiomar de Almeida Brasiel, Julliane Dutra Medeiros, Alessandra Barbosa Ferreira Machado, Maíra Schuchter Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti
International Journal of Dairy Technology, v. 74, p. 324-331.

Abstract: Kefir is a traditional fermented milk associated with several health benefits, such as immune system modulation, as well as antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant activity. The aim of the current study was to investigate the microbial dynamics of kefir production based on high-throughput DNA sequencing. Results of sequence analysis have grouped the reads into 303 and 112 amplicon sequence variants (ASV) for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the prevalent bacterial phyla, whereas Lactococcus was the prevalent bacterial genus. Ascomycota was the main fungal phylum. Data have shown heterogeneity in diversity and abundance distributions between milk kefir samples.

Minimally processed versus processed and ultra-processed food in individuals at cardiometabolic risk

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Adriana da Silva Leite, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
British Food Journal, v. 123, p. 1-22
Impact factor: 2.518

Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the association between food consumption classified by the degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk factors in a population at risk of cardiovascular disease. Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional study conducted with 325 adults and elderlies who present a cardiovascular risk factor. The food consumption was evaluated by a 24 h dietary recall, and it was classified according to the NOVA classification. Findings – Individuals who presented a higher consumption of processed and ultra-processed food had a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, waist/hip ratio (PR 5 1.005; p-value 5 0.049), waist circumference (PR51.003; p-value50.02) and high total cholesterol (PR51.008; p-value50.047), while ultra-processed had a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR 5 1.004; p-value 5 0.04), and abdominal obesity, waist/hip ratio (PR 5 1.005; p-value 5 0.04), waist circumference (PR 5 1.004; p-value 5 0.004) and waist/height ratio (PR 5 1.003; p-value 5 0.03). Practical implications – An association was found between the degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk factors, even in a population that already has a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the importance of personalized nutrition orientation that considers the profile of the target population as well as types of meals. Originality/value – Food processing in itself can influence cardiometabolic risk and, as far as is known, no study has evaluated food processing in individuals who already have some type of cardiovascular risk. Also, consumption was assessed by the degree of processing between meals

Online Food Frequency Questionnaire From the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project, Brazil) Construction, Validity, and Reproducibility

Heloísa Gambarelli de Araújo Azarias, José Luiz Marques-Rocha, Aline Elizabeth da Silva Miranda, Luana Caroline dos Santos, Ana Luíza Gomes Domingos, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Josefina Bressan, Fernando Luiz Pereira de Oliveira, Arieta Carla Gualandi Leal, Adriano Marçal Pimenta
Frontiers in Nutrition, v. 8, p.1-12.
Impact factor: 6.576

Abstract: Background: The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) is usually used in epidemiological studies to assess food consumption. However, the FFQ must have good accuracy, requiring its validation and reproducibility for the target population. Thus, this study aimed to describe the construction of the online Food Frequency Questionnaire (oFFQ) used at the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project, Brazil) and evaluate its validity and reproducibility. Methods: The oFFQ was answered two times in 1 year (March/August 2018—March/April 2019; n = 108 participants—reproducibility), and four 24-h dietary recalls (24hRs) were applied in two seasons of the southern hemisphere [two 24hRs in autumn (March/June 2018) and two 24hRs in winter (August/September 2018); n = 146 participants—validity]. To assess the validity and reproducibility, the
intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated.Results: The oFFQ had 144 food items separated into eight groups (dairy products; meat and fish; cereals and legumes; fruits; vegetables; fats and oils; drinks; other foods). In assessing the validity, ICCs for energy and macronutrients were considered moderate, ranging from 0.41 (energy) to 0.59 (protein), while the ICCs for micronutrients were considered low to moderate, ranging from 0.25 (fibers) to 0.65 (vitamin B6). Regarding reproducibility assessment, ICCs for energy and all the assessed items were considered moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.60 (vegetables) to 0.91 (vitamin E and retinol). Conclusions: The self-reported oFFQ had satisfactory validity and reproducibility. So, it can be used to analyze the association between food consumption and chronic diseases in the participants of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME project—Brazil).

Plant origin prebiotics affect duodenal brush border membrane functionality and morphology, in vivo (Gallus Gallus)

Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Elad Tako
Food & Function, v. 2021, p. 1-8
Impact factor: 5.396

Abstract: The intra-amniotic administration approach has been used to evaluate the effects of plant origin prebiotics on intestinal health and on brush border membrane functionality and morphology. Prebiotics are fermentable dietary fibers, which can positively affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and activity of colon bacteria, thus improving intestinal health. The consumption of prebiotics increases digestive tract motility, which leads to hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy of intestinal cells, increasing nutrient digestive and absorptive surface area. This review collates information about the effects and relationship between prebiotic consumption on small intestinal brush border membrane functionality and morphology by utilizing the intra-amniotic administration approach. To date, research has shown that the intra-amniotic administration of prebiotics affects the expression of key brush border membrane functional proteins, intestinal surface area (villi height/width), and goblet cell number/size. These effects may improve brush border membrane functionality and digestive/absorptive capabilities.

Perception of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System in the Zona da Mata Mineira region of Brazil: A qualitative approach

Irene da Silva Araújo Gonçalves, Cíntia Pereira Donateli1, Rosangela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Glauce Dias da Costa
Science Progress, v.104, p. 1–20.
Impact factor: 2.774

Abstract: This work is a qualitative exploratory survey that aims to identify healthcare workers and skilled professionals’ perceptions of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System in the Zona da Mata Mineira region of Brazil. Data analysis was carried out through content analysis; testimonials were extracted from semi-structured interviews via the qualitative data processing software Interface de R pour lês Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires version 0.7 alpha 2. A total of 41 people were interviewed, including primary healthcare center coordinators, and technical consultants at the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System, as well as nutritionists and data entry clerks. The issues most mentioned during interviews were related to lack of anthropometric equipment, absence of transportation, and inadequate facilities. Regarding the work process, professionals identified scarce training and nonuse of the data collected for healthcare decision-making as factors that compromise desired system outcomes. System qualities were also recognized, especially the mapping of main nutritional issues in the region. The participants reported the need for greater efforts to raise awareness of the importance of Food and Nutrition Surveillance actions at all levels of the public healthcare system. They also highlighted the need for human resources training, higher quality data recording, and suitable facilities. Investments in the entire system are essential to strengthen the information-decision-making-action triad, which would result in the improvement of users’ health indicators.

Physical activity and quality of life among college students without comorbidities for cardiometabolic diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lívia Carvalho Sette Abrantes, Núbia de Souza de Morais, Vivian Siqueira Santos Gonçalves, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Catarina Maria Nogueira de Oliveira Sediyama
Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Paulo Roberto dos Santos Amorim, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Quality of Life Research, v. 2021, p.1-30.
Impact factor: 4.147

Abstract: Purpose: To systematically review studies on the relationship between physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QOL) in university students without comorbidities for cardiometabolic diseases from around the world. Methods: We included observational studies with university students of both sexes, from public or private institutions, and that investigated the association or correlation between physical activity and quality of life among these students, without delimitation of date, language, or location. Reviews, letters to the editors, studies with qualitative methodologies, case studies, book chapters, articles with college students who had some specific disease or condition, such as obesity, diabetes, and others; studies with children of parents with chronic diseases, and those that were institutions aimed only at very specific populations, were excluded. Meta-analysis was calculated. Results: Thirty studies, consisting of 19,731 students, were included. The most commonly used instruments to assess the quality of life of the university population were the Quality of Life Questionnaire-short version (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was the most commonly used instrument to assess PA. For the meta-analysis, 22 studies were included. Weak but positive correlations were found between PA and the QOL domains: physical health (0.16. 95% CI 0.11 0.22; I2 = 99.96%); mental health (0.14; 95% CI 0.07-0.20; I2 = 99.97%); social relations (0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0. 38; I2 = 99.99%); environment (0.23, 95% CI 0.14-0.32; I2 = 99.90%); vitality (0.17. 95% CI 0.15-0.20; I2 = 99.49%) pain (0.02. 95% CI – 0.02 to 0.12; I2 = 99.96%); QOL and PA (0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.34; I2 = 99.99%).An association of R = 0.60 (95% CI 0.25-0.95; I2 = 85.61%) was found between QOL and PA in total. Conclusion: The results of our study showed a weak but positive relationship between physical activity and overall quality of life in college students, and also between PA and the domains of QL: physical health, social relationships, mental health, environment, and vitality, in this same population. It is important to study this population, since risk behaviors in this phase tend to perpetuate in the other phases of life

Postbiotics: Metabolites and mechanisms involved in microbiota-host interactions.

Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, José Alfredo Martinez, Firmino I. Milagro
Trends in Food Science & Technology, v. 108, p. 11-26
Impact factor: 12.563

Abstract: Background: The knowledge on the mechanisms through which the metabolites produced by the gut microbiota (postbiotics) prevent diseases, induce therapeutic responses, and behave differently in response to dietary and environmental changes, is one of the major challenges in nutrition research and paves the route for the development of new therapeutic strategies against non-communicable diseases. Scope and approach: In this review, the main mechanisms by which postbiotics provide a link between nutrition, microbiota, and human health are discussed. Postbiotics are the repertoire of metabolites produced in the fermentation process of dietary components (mainly fibers and polyphenols, but also complex carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), as well as the endogenous components generated by bacteria-host interactions that influence
human health. Key findings and conclusions: Short-chain fatty acids denote a primary energy source for colonocytes, also acting on the gut-brain axis to reduce appetite and performing epigenetic roles. Polyamines promote homeostasis and affect epigenetic processes, apoptosis, and cell proliferation through interaction with proteins and nucleic acids. Bile acids are involved in glucose metabolism and modulation of the host immune response. p-Cresol features antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but has been related to enteric pathogens, autism, and kidney diseases. The role of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in cardiovascular diseases is still under debate. Bacteriocins have antibiotic action against pathogens. The beneficial effects of polyphenols are demonstrated by their essentiality in the production of metabolites. Summarizing, metagenomic sequencing, intervention studies, and metabolomics are enabling to understand the modulation and effects of microbiota metabolic activity. However, in order to clearly elucidate the food-microbiota axis, the interplay among the host microbiota and the metabolites secreted by intestinal cells, and the intestine-liver-brain axis, the studies must be directed to the subject habitat.

Predictive capacity and cut-off points of adiposity indices for body fat prediction according to adolescent periods

Núbia de Souza de Morais, Valter Paulo Neves Miranda, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Eliana Carla Gomes de Souza, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
British Journal of Nutrition, v. 2021, p.1-9
Impact factor: 3.718

Abstract: Overweight is increasing in the adolescent population and became a public health problem in the world. This study aimed to identify the body adiposity indices (BAI) with the best capacity to predict excess fat tissue and propose cut-off points for them, according to sex and adolescence period. This is a cross-sectional study. We calculated BMI, conicity index (CI), BAI, body roundness index (BRI), waist:height ratio (WtHR) and
waist:hip ratio. Predictive capacity and cut-off points of adiposity indices were established by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curves. We determined AUC-ROC and CI, stratified by sex and adolescence period. The best index to identify excess body fat in 10-13-year-old female adolescents was the WtHR (AUC = 0·92), like the BAI in girls aged from 14 to 16 years old (AUC = 0·87) and 17 to 19 years old (AUC = 0·80). In male adolescents aged from 10 to 13 years old and 14 to 16 years old, the best index was the WtHR (AUC = 0·93 and AUC = 0·8, respectively), like the BAI in boys aged from 17 to 19 years old (AUC = 0·95). The use of indices with specific cut-off points for each period of adolescence and according to sex is important for the reliable diagnosis of excess body fat. It is advisable to use indices together to obtain a more accurate assessment. Thus, the WtHR and BAI are reproducible and reliable, with high sensitivity and specificity values, and can be used together with the BMI.

Prevalence of processed and ultra-processed food intake in Brazilian children (6-24 months) is associated with maternal consumption and breastfeeding practices

Marcela Martins Soares, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,v. 72, p.1-11
Impact factor: 3.483

Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify maternal consumption of processed and ultra-processed foods and to verify the factors associated with the supply of these foods to Brazilian children. This is a cross-sectional study with 231 mothers and children aged from 6 to 24 months. The mother’s and children’s food consumption was measured using three 24-hour recalls. The foods consumed were categorised according to the NOVA classification. The data were analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The supply of processed and ultra-processed foods to children was associated with the child’s age (T2: OR ¼ 1.17, p<.001; T3: OR ¼ 1.23, p<.001), the absence of breast milk consumption (T3: OR ¼ 3.82, p¼.006) and the greater consumption of these foods by mothers (T2: OR ¼ 3.15, p¼.018; T3: OR ¼ 4.59, p¼.004). We conclude that mothers who consume processed and ultra-processed foods also include them in complementary feeding, and the consumption of these foods by the child increases with age, absence of breastfeeding, and with increased maternal consumption.

Pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines are associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in Brazilian schoolchildren.

Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Josefina Bressan, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Lara Gomes Suhett, Mariane Alves Silva, Juliana Farias de Novaes
European Journal of Pediatrics, v. 180, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 3.183

Abstract: Pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines have been regarded as potential markers of obesity and cardiometabolic comorbidities. However, few studies have evaluated this association in children. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between adipokine concentrations and cardiometabolic risk markers in Brazilian schoolchildren. This was a cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8–9 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We measured adipokines (leptin, retinol-binding protein 4, adiponectin, and chemerin) and cardiometabolic riskmarkers (fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and blood pressure). Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared by quintiles of adipokines with linear regression adjusted for potential confounders. Leptin was positively
associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), and retinol-binding protein 4 was positively associated with total cholesterol (P = 0.04). Each standard deviation of leptin and retinol-binding protein 4 was associated to, respectively, a 0.1 (95%CI: 0.1; 0.2), 0.3 (95%CI: 0.1; 0.6), and 2.5 (95%CI: 0.1; 4.9) units increase in diastolic blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol. Adiponectin was negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), and chemerin was negatively associated with glucose (P = 0.001). Each standard deviation of adiponectin and chemerin was associated to, respectively, a −0.1 (95%CI: −0.2; −0.1), −0.2 (95%CI: −0.3; −0.1), and −1.2 (95%CI: −1.9; −0.5) units decrease in diastolic blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and glucose. Conclusion: Pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines were positively and negatively associated with cardiometabolic risk markers, respectively, among schoolchildren, indicating this relationship may be identified at earlier ages.

Protective effects of whey protein concentrate admixtured of curcumin on metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress in Wistar rats submitted to exhaustive exercise.

Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Kelly Aparecida Dias, Stephanie Michelin Santana Pereira, Luis Claudio Saraiva, Lívya Alves Oliveira, Eliana Carla Gomes de Souza, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta, Antônio Jose Natali, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
British Journal of Nutrition,v. 27, p. 1-36
Impact factor: 3.718

Abstract: This work aimed to evaluate the effects of whey protein concentrate admixtured of curcumin on metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress in Wistar rats submitted to exhaustive exercise. A total of 48 male rats were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 8): standard diet group (AIN-93M); standard diet submitted to exhaustion test group (AIN-93M ET); whey protein concentrate admixtured of curcumin group (WPC + CCM); WPC + CCM submitted to exhaustion test group (WPC + CCM ET); CCM group, and CCM subjected to exhaustion test group (CCM ET). The swimming exhaustion test was performed after 4 weeks of experiment. The consumption of WPC + CCM as well as isolated CCM did not alter the biometric measurements, the animals’ food consumption and the hepatic and kidney function, as well as the protein balance of the animals (p>0.05), but reduced the glycemia and the gene expression of TNF- α and IL-6, and increased the expression of IL-10 (p<0.05). The animals that were submitted to the exhaustion test (AIN-93M ET) showed higher AST values when compared to the animals that did not perform the exercise (AIN-93 M) (p<0.05). WPC + CCM reduced the concentration of nitric oxide, carbonylated protein and increased the concentration of catalase (p<0.05). Both (WPC + CCM and CCM) were able to increase the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (p<0.05). We concluded that the WPC admixtured of CCM represents a strategy capable of decreasing blood glucose and oxidative and inflammatory damage caused by exhaustive physical exercise in swimming.

Protein Digests and Pure Peptides from Chia Seed Prevented Adipogenesis and Inflammation by Inhibiting PPARγ and NF-κB Pathways in 3T3L-1 Adipocytes.

Mariana Grancieri, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Elvira Gonzales de Mejia
Nutrients, v. 13, p. 1–22
Impact factor: 5.717

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the mechanisms of digested total proteins (DTP), albumin, glutelin, and pure peptides from chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) to prevent adipogenesis and its associated inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Preadipocytes (3T3-L1) were treated during differentiation with either DTP or digested albumin or glutelin (1 mg/mL) or pure peptides NSPGPHDVALDQ and RMVLPEYELLYE (100 M). Differentiated adipocytes also received DTP, digested albumin or glutelin (1 mg/mL), before (prevention) or after (inhibition) induced inflammation by addition of conditioned medium (CM) from inflamed macrophages. All treatments prevented adipogenesis, reducing more than 50% the expression of PPAR and to a lesser extent lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), lipase activity and triglycerides. Inflammation induced by CM was reduced mainly during prevention, while DTP decreased expression of NF-B

Relative validity and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire for individuals on hemodialysis (NUGE-HD study).

Aline Lage Wendling, Sandra Patrícia Crispim, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Karla Pereira Balbino, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Hemodialysis international, v.2021, p.1-11.
Impact factor: 1.812

Abstract:  Introduction: Adequate assessment of food intake is essential to establish the magnitude and direction of the relationship of food, nutrients, and bioactive compounds with clinical outcomes of individuals in hemodialysis. We evaluated the relative validity and reproducibility of a specific food frequency questionnaire for individuals on hemodialysis (FFQ-HD). Methods: Eighty-two participants (57.3% male, 57.5 ± 14.4 years) from the open cohort Nutrition and Genetics in Hemodialysis Outcomes participated in this study. The relative validity of the FFQ-HD was assessed using the mean of two 24-h food recall (24hR) adjusted for within-subject variability as a reference method. We also performed Pearson correlations, and agreement between tertile, kappa statistics, and Bland-Altman scatter plots were validated. Reproducibility was assessed after 1 year using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Findings: Daily energy intake was not different between FFQ-HD and 24hR (mean difference of 50.1 kcal). Intake of protein, linolenic acid, fiber, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, and sugar showed a moderate correlation (r between 0.4 and 0.5) among instruments, while mean correlation coefficient was r = 0.38 to food group intake. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for micronutrients, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium and for the groups “flour, bread, and pasta” and “processed, canned meat, salts, and seasonings”. The reproducibility of FFQ-HD for nutrients and food groups was satisfactory, reaching a maximum ICC of 0.72 and 0.59, respectively. Discussion: The FFQ-HD showed moderate validity and reproducibility for calories, nutrients, and food groups of clinical and nutritional interest for HD subjects so that it can be a useful tool in epidemiological studies in this population.

Six months under uncontrolled relative humidity and room temperature changes technological characteristics and maintains the physicochemical and functional properties of carioca beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

Natália Elizabeth Galdino Alves, Mariana Juste Contim Gomes, Christiane M. Vasconcelos, Ana Cristina Lima, Sâmara Letícia Silva de Lima, Edy S. Brito, Priscila Z. Bassinello, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Food Chemistry, v.342, p.1-10
Impact factor: 7.514

Abstract: Carioca beans contribute to health maintenance around the world, and the evaluation of commercial postharvest storage (CPS) ensures their quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CPS on technological, physicochemical and functional properties of carioca beans. Two genotypes (Pontal–PO and Madreperola–MP beans) were stored under CPS or controlled conditions and were evaluated after harvest and after three- and six-months storage. PO and MP hardened with time, but the cooking time did not differ. PO is darker than MP and both darkened over time. Storage time affected pH and acidity of the beans and MP presented better physicochemical properties than PO, with lower activity of peroxidase (p = 0.004) and polyphenoloxidase (p = 0.001) enzymes. Glycosylated kaempferol was suggested as a possible chemical marker to differentiate the aging of PO and MP beans. In conclusion, besides the technological differences, the storage was able to prevent physicochemical and functional alterations of beans.

STRONGkids nutritional screening tool in pediatrics: an analysis of cutoff points in south américa.

Joice da Silva Castro, Carolina Araújo dos Santos, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Heloísa Helena Firmino, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Nutrition in Clinical Practice, v. 36, p.1-8.
Impact factor: 3.080

Abstract: Background Studies have indicated the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) as a method of pediatric nutrition screening with good validity in the hospital setting. However, we need to analyze whether the cutoff values originally proposed are suitable for use in Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in patients admitted to the pediatric ward of a public hospital. STRONGkids was used to assess nutrition risk (low risk, 0 points; moderate risk, 1–3 points; and high risk, 4–5 points). The indexes weight/height or body mass index/age were used to indicate acute malnutrition, and length or height/age was used to indicate chronic malnutrition. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed and the areas under the curve were calculated, with respective 95% confidence intervals, to assess the ability of STRONGkids to predict malnutrition and longer hospital stay. Results The study included 599 patients, with a median age of 2.6 years. The frequency of nutrition risk (medium or high) was 83.6%. In comparison with anthropometric indexes, STRONGkids was the only scoring system with the discriminatory capacity to identify patients with longer hospital stays. The comparative analysis of the means of hospital stay according to STRONGkids showed that patients with a score equal to 3 behaved similarly to those classified as high nutrition risk (4–5 points). Conclusions Considering the best cutoff point to predict prolonged hospitalization, STRONGkids used in Brazil should consider patients with 3 points as having high nutrition risk, as well those scoring 4 and 5.

The dietary inflammatory index is associated with anti- and pro-inflammatory adipokines in Brazilian schoolchildren.

Lara Gomes Suhett, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Juliana Farias de Novaes
European Journal of Nutrition, v.60, p. 2841-2849
Impact factor: 5.614

Abstract: Purpose To investigate the relationship of Children’s Dietary Inflammatory Index (C-DII™) scores with body fat distribution and serum adipokines in Brazilian schoolchildren. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled 378 schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years from Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Food consumption was assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls from which C-DII scores were calculated. Serum adipokines [adiponectin, leptin, retinal-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and chemerin] were analyzed in blood samples. Sociodemographic characteristics and sedentary behavior were assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Total, truncal, android and gynoid body fat were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared the distributions of adiposity measures and serum adipokines by C-DII categories with linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Results The mean sample C-DII was 0.59 ± 0.94 and ranged from − 2.16 to + 2.75. The C-DII was not associated with central and total body fat. However, the C-DII was modestly inversely associated with adiponectin and RBP4, and modestly directly associated with chemerin. These results remained significant after adjusting for body fat. Every 1 SD of C-DII was related, respectively, to a − 0.8 (− 1.5, − 0.03) and to a − 0.1 (− 0.2, − 0.05) units lower mean of adiponectin and RBP4, and to 7.2 (0.3, 14.1) units higher of chemerin. Conclusion Higher C-DII score was modestly inversely and directly associated with anti- and pro-inflammatory adipokines, respectively, in Brazilian children. The development of public health policies is needed to promote healthy eating habits during childhood to prevent the early onset of systemic inflammation and ill health effects later in life.

Ultra-processed foods consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilians with established cardiovascular events.

Alessandra da Silva, Matheus Brum Felício, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Helen Hermana Hermsdorff, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Bernardete Weber
Aline Marcadenti, Josefina Bressan
International Journal of Food Scince and Nutrition, v. 2021, p. 1-10
Fator de impacto: 3.833

Resumo: The consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. However, there is scarce literature on the association between UPF consumption, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects undergoing secondary care for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the association between UPF consumption, CVD, and cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with established CVD. Baseline data from 2,357 subjects participating in a Brazilian multicenter study were analysed finding a mean UPF consumption of 18.7% of their energy intake. Higher figures of UPF consumption were founded associated with an increased presence of high waist circumference, overweight, peripheral arterial disease, and with a decreased odds of the simultaneous presence of coronary arterial disease, peripheral arterial diseases, and stroke when comparing among tertiles of UPF contribution to energy intake. These associations were observed when analyzing the whole sample and women but not men. Thus, these findings should help improve strategies for CVD patients in secondary care.

Uric acid: A new marker for metabolic syndrome? Results of a population-based study with adults.

Emanuele Louise Gomes de Magalhães, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira, Denise M.T. Roberto, Patrícia de F. Hinnig, Giana Zarbato Longo
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, v. 31, p.2077-2080
Impact factor: 4.222

Abstract: Background and aims: Recently, studies have shown a positive association betweenserum uric acid (UA) and metabolic syndrome (MS). To evaluate the predictive capacity and the association of serum UA with pre-MS and MS, by sex, in adults. Methods and results: Cross-sectional study with 932 adults, of both sexes, from Viçosa, Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were obtained through a questionnaire and anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical evaluation. We used multinomial logistic regression and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The prevalence of pre-MS was 17.8% and of MS was 26.5%. The fitted models showed positive association of serum UA with pre-MS (OR Z 1.62, 95% CI Z 1.09e2.40) and MS (OR Z 2.61, 95% CI Z 1.99e3.42) among men. For women, similar results were found for MS (OR Z 2.59, 95% CI Z 1.81e3.73). The optimal cutoff points obtained by AUC for pre-MS and MS were 4.7 and 4.9 mg/dL among men and 3.1 and 3.4 mg/dL among women, respectively. Conclusion: The results point to a positive association of UA with pre-MS and MS, with no significant differences between sexes. Therefore, UA can be used as an additional marker in the screening of these conditions.

Water stress increased the flavonoid content in tannin-free sorghum grains.

Soraia Silva Pinheiro, Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Cícero Bezerrade Menezes, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, v.100, p.1-5
Fator de imapcto: 4.556

Resumo: The effect of water stress on the profile of flavonoids was evaluated in three tannin-containing (SC115, SC60, and SC720) and in three tannin-free (B.Tx635, SA 5330-MARTIN, and SC373) sorghum genotypes. Flavones, flavanones and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The water stress x genotype interaction increased the sorghum flavones (ranging from 11.3–85.5 μg/g), flavanones (0.14–157.2 μg/g) and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (5.2–245.3 μg/g) content. The effect of water stress on 3-deoxyanthocyanidins was related to the presence of tannin in sorghum genotypes. Water stress increasedthe functional potential of sorghum, especially in tannin-free genotypes, by increasing the flavone, flavanone and 3-deoxyanthocyanidin content.


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