Publications of 2020

A systematic review of cross-sectional studies on the association of sedentary behavior with cardiometabolic diseases and related biomarkers in South American adults

Kliver Antonio Marim, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Fabiane Aparecida Cannan Rezende, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Antônio José Natali
Nutricion Hospitalaria, v. 37, p.359-373
Impact factor: 0.759

Abstract: Introduction: sedentary behavior (SB) has been independently associated with detrimental health outcomes in different regions worldwide. The aim of this systematic review was to examine whether domain-specific SB is associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) and related biomarkers in South American adults. Methods: nine electronic databases were searched to identify all studies that analyzed the association between SB and CMD –e.g. obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and clustering of chronic diseases (CCD) – and related biomarkers in South American adults. Two independent reviewers performed the necessary Abstract/full-text screening, data abstraction, and quality assessments. The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018099319). Results: from the 1,262 articles identified in the search 262 were reviewed in full and 20 were used in the analysis in accordance to the inclusion criteria. High SB (mainly sitting and TV time) was associated with an increased likelihood of obesity (n = 8), diabetes (n = 6), and CCD (n = 3), as well as high values of BMI (n = 8), WC (n = 7), % BF (n = 4), plasma lipids (n = 4), and glycemia (n = 5). Eleven out of 20 studies were of higher quality. Conclusion: long time spent in SB, mainly sitting and TV time, was positively associated with the occurrence of CMD and related  iomarkers
in South American adults.

Aerobic exercise and lipolysis: A review of the β-adrenergic signaling pathways in adipose tissue.

Aurora Correa Rodrigues, Tales Nicolau Primola Gomes, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Antônio José Natali
Science & Sports, v. 2020, p.1-10
Impact factor: 0.684

Abstract: Objectives The objective of this study was to review the beta-adrenergic (β-AR) signaling pathways in adipose tissue, highlight key proteins involved in lypolisis and examine the effects of aerobic exercise on adipose tissue metabolism. News Obesity is related to increased body fat and chronic subclinical inflammation. In this framework, lipolytic signaling pathways play a key role in the adipose tissue metabolism. The sympathetic activity through beta-adrenergic receptors is responsible for the lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as for the browning of WAT. Aerobic exercise training protects against obesity by reducing body fat and chronic inflammation. Along with lipid oxidation, eating behavior and epigenetic reprogramming, the benefits of exercise are related to increases in lipolysis and browning in WAT, and thermogenesis in BAT by activation of the beta-adrenergic signaling pathways. Prospects and projects The β-adrenergic signaling pathways in adipose tissue in a condition of obesity reflect more complex scenarios requiring further investigations. Concerning aerobic exercise effects, researches should address other possible lipid metabolism pathways, new cytokines involved in lypolisis and inflammation, eating behavior and epigenetic. Thus, new therapeutic strategies to face obesity and associated comorbidities should come up. Conclusion Aerobic exercise training protects against obesity. It induces adipose tissue metabolism by increasing lipolysis and browning of WAT, thermogenesis in BAT, and expression of cytokines related to lipid oxidation and inflammation, not to mention eating behavior and epigenetic reprogramming. Such benefits are helpful in the prevention and treatment of obesity.

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Anacardium occidentale L. and Anacardium microcarpum D. Extracts on the Liver of IL-10 Knockout Mice

Anderson Barbosa Baptista, Mariáurea M. Sarandy, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Cláudio Gonçalves da Costa, João Paulo Viana Leite, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v.2020, p.1-13
Impact factor: 1.984

Abstract: Background. *e Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) and Anacardium microcarpum D. (caju´ı) are plants commonly found in Brazil. *ey present phytochemical compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. *erefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extracts from leaves of A. occidentale and A. microcarpum and its effect on the hepatic tissue in experimental knockout models after they received Paracetamol®. Methods. Ethanol extracts from A. occidentale and A. microcarpum leaves were prepared. Total phenolics were determined by Folin–Ciocalteau reagent, and flavonoids are based on the complexation reaction with the aluminum metal, forming a colored complex. Fingerprint HPLC was performed to detect phenolic compounds. Knockout IL-10 mice randomly divided into six groups were used and received the following treatments: G1, only water; G2, A. occidentale extract; G3, A. microcarpum extract; G4, Paracetamol®; G5, Paracetamol®+ A. occidentale extract (400 mg/kg); G6, Paracetamol®+ A. microcarpum extract (400 mg/kg). Biochemical parameters of the blood and differential count of leukocytes were done. Oxidative markers and histopathological analyses were performed on their liver tissue. Results. Phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were detected in both two extracts analyzed. *e HPLC fingerprint detected phenolic acid, gallic acid, and catechin flavonoid in the two extracts. Histopathological analyses of the hepatic tissue permitted evaluation of nuclear increase, sinusoid congestion, and inflammatory infiltrate. A. microcarpum presented more antioxidant activity increasing antioxidant enzyme levels and reducing TBARS and carbonyl protein when compared to the other treatments after exposure to Paracetamol®. Histopathological analyses showed a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate after treatment with extracts. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that both extracts, especially A. microcarpum, can reduce hepatic damage in knockout mice exposed to paracetamol, indicating the curative power of these extracts reducing lipid peroxidation and in the morphofunctional damage to the liver parenchyma.

Association between food insecurity and hemoglobin and retinol levels in children treated in the Brazilian Unified National Health System in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Letícia Barroso Vertulli Carneiro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes , Fabio da Silva Gomes, Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso
Cadernos de Saúde Pública, v. 36, p. 1-12
Impact factor: 1.170

Abstract: This study analyzed the association between food insecurity and hemoglobin and retinol levels in children 6 to 59 months of age. This was a cross-sectional study in 2014 with a representative sample of children in this age bracket treated at basic health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of food insecurity levels used the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and venipuncture was performed for measurement of serum hemoglobin and retinol levels. The association between variables used quantile regression models. Of all the children in the sample, 40.3% presented food insecurity, and the prevalence rates for anemia and vitamin A deficiency were 13.7% and 13%, respectively. The study’s results revealed a statistically significant inverse association between mild food insecurity and retinol levels. For the other levels of food insecurity (moderate and severe), the results also suggest an inverse association for hemoglobin, and for retinol levels the point estimates appear smaller in children with severe food insecurity, but these estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest that food insecurity may be associated with micronutrient deficiencies in children under 5 years.

Association between food insecurity and cardiometabolic risk in adults and the elderly: A systematic review

Elizangela da Silva Miguel, Silvia Oliveira Lopes, Susilane Pereira Araújo, Silvia Eloíza Priore, Rita de Cassia Gonçalves Alfenas, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsodrff
Journal of global Health, v. 10, p.1-7
Impact factor: 3.079

Abstract: Background Food insecurity is a public health concern that affects health and quality of life, but its association with cardiometabolic risk is not well established. Thus, this systematic review evaluated the association between food insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults and the elderly. Methods Search was conducted according to the PRISMA protocol using Scielo, LILACS and PubMed databases. We included original articles published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish, which assessed the association between food insecurity and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults and the elderly. The search identified 877 articles but only 11 were included in the review. Results. Food insecurity was directly associated with cardiometabolic risk (excess weight, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes, and stress) after adjusting for interfering factors. A limitation of the cross-sectional study design is that the cause-effect relation between food insecurity and cardiometabolic risk cannot be established. Conclusions We conclude that food insecurity has a direct relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors, especially excess weight, hypertension, and dyslipidemias. The identification of food insecurity as health problems can contribute to the implementation of efficient public policies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.

Association between Skeletal Mass Indices and Metabolic Syndrome in Brazilian Adults

Cristiane Junqueira de Carvalho, Giana Zarbato Longo, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Kátia Josiany Segheto, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Impact factor 2.184

Abstract: Skeletal muscle is the primary site of glucose uptake and its reduction would increase insulin resistance, which is a determinant factor for diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of low skeletal muscle mass as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and its association with cardiometabolic risk is still uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle mass (determined by different skeletal mass indices) and metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults. Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study with 689 adults of both sexes aged between 20 and 59 years. Data were collected through questionnaires and assessment of body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical measurements. Results: Older individuals, obese and those with metabolic syndrome predominated in the highest tertile of skeletal mass index adjusted by height (SMIheight), whereas using skeletal mass index adjusted by weight (SMIweight) and skeletal mass index adjusted by body mass index (SMIBMI) these individuals were the majority in the lowest tertile of these indices. In men and women, the adjusted logistic regression model revealed that the highest tertile of SMIweight (odds ratio [OR]: 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-0.21 and OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.74) and SMIBMI (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.05-0.37 and OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12-0.94) were negatively associated with metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, the highest tertile of SMIheight was positively associated with metabolic syndrome in both sexes (OR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.80-9.66 and OR: 6.15, 95% CI: 2.31-16.37, respectively in men and women). Conclusion: In adults, the muscle mass assessed from the skeletal mass index adjusted for body weight and body mass index is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in both sexes.

Association of Lifestyle and Body Composition on Risk Factors of Cardiometabolic Diseases and Biomarkers in Female Adolescents.

Valter Paulo Neves Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto dos Santos Amorim, Ronaldo Rocha Bastos, Karina Lúcia Ribeiro Canabrava, Márcio Vidigal Miranda Júnior, Fernanda Rocha Faria, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Mediators of Inflammation, v. 2020, p. 1-12
Impact factor 3.545

Abstract: Background. Female adolescents are considered a risk group for cardiometabolic disease due to their lifestyle (LS). Objective. To evaluate the association between LS classes and body composition groups with cardiometabolic disease risk factors and pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers in female adolescents. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out with female adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, from Viçosa-MG, Brazil. Latent class analysis assessed LS classes. Kinanthropometric measurements were taken together with the body fat percentage (BF%), being analyzed by the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) equipment. Blood pressure and biochemical parameters were analyzed in the Health Division of the Federal University of Viçosa. The pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed using Luminex technology. Associations with biomarkers were estimated by multiple linear regression. Results. 405 female adolescents were evaluated. The majority, 82.57%, 72.90%, and 65.31%, were classified as inactive by the number of steps, with high screen and cell phone time, respectively. Furthermore, 41.55% did meet the minimum of 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 54.69% had high values of BF% (DEXA). The “Sedentary & Inactive LS” class together with the high levels of weight and BF% were associated with increased levels of blood pressure, lipid profile, and uric acid. It was also found that “Inactive & Sedentary LS”, high BF%, insulin resistance, and ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein were associated with the concentrations of proinflammatory biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and leptin. Conclusion. We concluded that female adolescents with overweight/obese and high BF% presented higher values of anthropometric indicators, levels of blood pressure, concentration of uric acid and hs-CRP, and lower concentration of HDL. Inactive and Sedentary lifestyle of these girls, along with excess body fat, insulin resistance, and higher concentrations of hs-CRP were associated with the higher concentration proinflammatory markers.

Binge drinking and overweight in brazilian adults – CUME Project

Luis Paulo Souza e Souza, Aline Elizabeth da Silva Miranda, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Carla Silvana de Oliveira e Silva, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa, Josefina Bressan, Adriano Marçal Pimenta
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, v. 73, p.1-8

Abstract: Objective: To verify the association between heavy episodic alcohol consumption [binge drinking (BD)] and overweight in 2,909 adults from the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project) baseline, Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study in which sociodemographic, anthropometric (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 = overweight) and dietary intake data were collected. This study evaluated the occurrence and monthly frequency of BD (≥ 4 drinks at one time for women; ≥ 5 drinks at one time for men, in the last 30 days). Results: The prevalence of BD and overweight were 41.3% and 40.8%, respectively. BD increased the prevalence of overweight by 19%, and, BD exposure by ≥ 5 days / month increased it by 31%. Conclusion: BD on a single or multiple occasion during the month was associated with a higher prevalence of overweight. Therefore, such a lifestyle should be considered in weight gain prevention strategies

Body image disorders associated with lifestyle and body composition of female adolescentes.

Valter Paulo Neves Miranda, Paulo Roberto dos Santos Amorim, Eliane Rodrigues de Faria, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Fracneschini, Nubia de Souza Morais, Silvia Eloíza Priore
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2020, p.1-11
Impact factor: 2.526

Abstract: Objective: To investigate the association between body image disorders and the lifestyle and body composition of female adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Silhouette Scale and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 were used to evaluate the participants’ body image. Body composition was evaluated by a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry equipment, and lifestyles were identified by latent class analysis (LCA) using the poLCA package for R. Participants: Female adolescents aged 14–19 years old, in the city of Viçosa-MG, Brazil. Results: In total, 405 girls participated in the study. Almost half of the participants were dissatisfied with their current physical appearance (51·4 %), presented body perception distortions (52·9 %). 47·3 % of the adolescents were dissatisfied with their body according to the BSQ, and another 8 % severely so. Subjects with an ‘Inactive and Sedentary’ latent lifestyle were 1·71 times as likely to feel dissatisfied as those with active and sedentary or inactive and non-sedentary lifestyles (95 % CI 1·08, 2·90, P = 0·047). Body image disorders showed an association with decreased amounts of moderate and vigorous physical activity, high screen time, increased alcohol consumption and excess body fat. Conclusions: Particular patterns of lifestyle and body composition seem to be associated in female adolescents with dissatisfaction with, distortion of and excessive concern about appearance. Specifically, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, alcohol consumption and high body fat percentage may be strongly linked to body image disorders.

Branched-Chain amino acids intake is negatively related to body adiposity in individuals at cardiometabolic risk

Alinne Paula de Almeida,  Fernanda Santos Fortes, Brenda Kelly Souza Silveira, Nínive de Almeida Reis, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Revista de Nutrição, v. 33, p.1-11

Abstract: Objective: To assess the relationship between branched-chain amino acids intake in the current diet and the metabolic and body adiposity markers in a population at cardiovascular risk. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 282 adults and elderly people from the Cardiovascular Health Care Program of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and body composition data, as well as metabolic biomarkers were collected using standardized protocols. Dietary intake of branched amino acids was assessed using a 24-hour recall. Results Individuals with a higher branched-chain amino acids intake (≥2.6g/day, median value) had lower body fat (29.6 vs 32.2%; p=0.019), and higher serum ferritin (113.2 vs. 60.1mg/dL; p=0.006) and uric acid concentrations (4.4 vs. 4.0; p=0.023). In addition, a lower prevalence of overweight and excessive abdominal fat (p<0.05) was found in the individuals with higher branched-chain amino acids intake. They also had a higher daily intake of fiber, copper, zinc, magnesium, and iron, as well as a lower intake of total lipids. Conclusion In the present study, the intake of branched amino acids is negatively related to total and central adiposity, but more studies are needed to fully elucidate this possible relationship. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials, code RBR-5n4y2g).

Can advanced glycation end-products and their receptors be affected by weight loss: A systematic review

Juliana Ferreira Tavares, Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Olivia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Laís Emilia da Silva, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Obesity Reviews, v.21,  p. 1-13
Impact factor: 8.192

Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of most chronic diseases. Therefore, identification of treatments that can attenuate the effects of these compounds and prevent cardiometabolic complications is of extreme public health interest. Recently, body weight management interventions showed positive results on reducing serum AGE concentrations. Moreover, the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is considered to be a novel biomarker to identify patients with obesity most likely to benefit from weight management interventions. This systematic review aimed to critically analyze papers evaluating the effects of weight loss on serum AGEs and its receptors in adults with excess body weight. MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus, and Lilacs databases were searched. Three studies evaluating the response of AGEs to energy-restricted diets and six assessing sRAGE as the primary outcome were included. Energy-restricted diets and bariatric surgery reduced serum AGE concentrations, but effects on endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) and sRAGE concentrations are conflicting. These results may be associated with mechanisms related to changes in dietary intake and limiting endogenous AGE formation. Therefore, the role of energy-restricted diets and bariatric surgery on lowering serum AGE concentrations, as well as its effects on AGEs receptors, deserves further investigation.

Cardiometabolic risk and health behaviours in adolescents with normal-weight obesity: a systematic review.

Bruna Clemente Cota, Lara Gomes Suhett, Nathália Nogueira Leite, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2020, p.1-12.
Impact factor: 2.526

Abstract: Objective: To analyse the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents with normal-weight obesity (NWO), as well as to investigate health behaviours related to the phenotype. Design: The study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the bibliographic search was carried out in the PubMed, Scielo and ScienceDirect databases. Setting: School, university and population. Participants: Adolescents between 10 and 19 years old. Results: A total of eight papers were included. Most studies have found a relationship between NWO and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors, such as high waist circumference, unfavourable lipid and glycid profile. As for health behaviours, three of the eight studies included evaluated eating habits; however, the results were not conclusive. In addition, four studies analysed the practice of physical activity or physical fitness, which was lower in NWO. Conclusions: The available evidence indicates that NWO is related to the early development of cardiometabolic changes, physical inactivity and less physical fitness in adolescents. The results also reveal the importance of early detection of the phenotype, as well as the need for further research on the associated factors to prevent future diseases. Registration (PROSPERO: CRD42020161204).

Chemoprevention of DMH-Induced Early Colon Carcinogenesis in Male BALB/c Mice by Administration of Lactobacillus Paracasei DTA81.

Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Bruna Cristina Dos Santos Cruz, Armin Tarrah, Roberto Sousa Dias, Luiza de Paula Dias Moreira, Wilson José Fernandes Lemos Junior, Lívia Carneiro Fidélis Silva, Gabriele Rocha Santana, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Hilario Cuquetto Mantovani, Viviana Corich, Alessio Giacomini, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula
Microorganisms, v. 8, p.1-22.
Ipact factor: 4.167

Abstract: We evaluated the effects of the probiotic candidate Lactobacillus paracasei DTA81 (DTA81) on liver oxidative stress, colonic cytokine profile, and gut microbiota in mice with induced early colon carcinogenesis (CRC) by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Animals were divided into four different groups (n = 6) and received the following treatments via orogastric gavage for 8 weeks: Group skim milk (GSM): 300 mg/freeze-dried skim milk/day; Group L. paracasei DTA81 (DTA81): 3 × 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/day; Group Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG): 3 × 109 CFU/day; Group non-intervention (GNI): 0.1 mL/water/day. A single DMH dose (20 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p), weekly, in all animals (seven applications in total). At the end of the experimental period, DTA81 intake reduced hepatic levels of carbonyl protein and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, low levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-17, as well as a reduced expression level of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were observed in colonic homogenates. Lastly, animals who received DTA81 showed an intestinal enrichment of the genus Ruminiclostridium and increased concentrations of caecal acetic acid and total short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, this study indicates that the administration of the probiotic candidate DTA81 can have beneficial effects on the initial stages of CRC development

Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) effects and their molecular mechanisms on unbalanced diet experimental studies: A systematic review

Bárbara Nery Enes, Luiza de Paula Dias Moreira, Bárbara Pereira da Silva, Mariana Grancieri, Haíra Guedes Lúcio, Susanne U. Mertens-Talcott, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Journal of Food Science,v. 85, p.226-239
Impact factor: 2.081

Abstract: The aim of this review was to compile evidence and understand chia seed effects on unbalanced diet animal studies and the molecular mechanisms on metabolic biomarker modulation. A systematic review was conducted in electronic databases, following PRISMA recommendations. Risk of bias and quality was assessed using SYRCLE toll and ARRIVE guidelines. Seventeen articles were included. Throughout the studies, chia’s main effects are associated with AMPK modulation: improvement of glucose and insulin tolerance, lipogenesis, antioxidant activity, and inflammation.
Details about randomization and allocation concealment were insufficient, as well as information about blind protocols. Sample size, chia dose, and number of animals evaluated for each parameter were found to be lacking information among the studies. Based on experimental study data, chia has bioactive potential, and its daily consumption may reduce the risk of chronic disease development, mainly due to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects of the seed.

Cocoa and unripe banana flour beverages improve anthropometric and biochemical markers in overweight women: A randomised double-blind study

Fernanda Laurides Ribeiro de Oliveira Lomeu, Camilla Ribeiro Vieira, Flávia Della Lucia, Sandra Maria Oliveira Moraes Veiga, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Roberta Ribeiro Silva
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, v. 2020, p.1-10
Índice H: 51

Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a functional cocoa and unripe banana flour (UBF) beverage intake on the anthropometric and biochemical markers of overweight women. Methods: This prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial involved 60 female volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years. One group received a cocoa beverage (n = 30) and one group received a cocoa and UBF beverage (n = 30), for 6 weeks. The cocoa beverage showed 3.07 total g dietary fiber/serving and 29.55 mg gallic acid equivalentes/portion (GAE/portion). Cocoa and UBF beverage contained 8.48% resistant starch by weight, 4.37 g dietary fiber/full portion and 69.24 mg GAE/portion. Weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions were evaluated. Results: The UBF and cocoa beverage reduced waist circumference (-2.03 cm, P < 0.001) and the cocoa beverage reduced total cholesterol (-19.3 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and the LDL/HDL ratio (-0.32, P < 0.001); in addition, both beverages promoted the reduction of body fat percentage (-1.98%, P = 0.001 and -1.15%, P < 0.001 Cocoa/UPF group and Cocoa group respectively). Conclusion: The additional dietary fiber did not further improve health status.

Coffee and tea group contribute the most to the dietary total antioxidant capacity of older adults: a population study in a medium-sized brazilian city

Mary Anne Nascimento-Souza, Alessandra da Silva, Maria Sônia Lopes Duarte,
Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, v. 39, p. 688-698
Impact factor:2.080

Abstract: Objective The dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been proposed as a suitable tool to estimate the dietary antioxidant intake. However, the main foods/groups that contribute to the dietary TAC of older adults are poorly studied. We aimed to estimate the dietary TAC and to identify the main foods/groups that contribute to the dietary TAC of older adults in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey with older adults (≥60 years old) was conducted in Viçosa, Brazil. The assessment tool for food consumption was the recall of habitual consumption. A database with ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values for foods to evaluate the dietary TAC was used. Results We evaluated 620 older adults in which the majority were women. The dietary TAC mean was 11.9 (7.1) mmol/d (food only) adjusted by energy. Besides, when supplements were considered the dietary TAC increased to 35.2 (215.9) mmol/d. The food groups that contributed the most to the dietary TAC were coffee and tea, vegetables, and fruits and juices. The coffee and tea group explained most of the variability of dietary TAC (58.3%). Conclusions We concluded that the older adults studied had a relatively low dietary TAC consumption. The coffee and tea were the food group that contribute the most to the dietary TAC. Our data show the need to implement national strategies aimed at improving the quality of the diet of older adults. We highlight the need to increase the consumption of different food groups and, consequently, the intake of different compounds with antioxidant capacity, which will contribute to a better dietary TAC with possible positive health effects.

Comparison of bioactive compounds and nutrient contents in whey protein concentrate admixture of turmeric extract produced by spray drying and foam mat drying.

Jaqueline Vieira Piovezana Gomes, Lívya Alves de Oliveira, Stephanie Michelin Santana Pereira, Aline Rosignoli da Conceição, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Eliana Carla Gomes de Souza, Ítalo Tuler Perrone, Mateus da Silva Junqueira, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Food Chemistry, v.345
Impact factor: 5.399

Abstracct: We developed a whey protein admixture of turmeric extract by spray drying (TWPC-SD) and by foam mat drying (TWPC-FMD) and compared its bioactive compounds and nutrients contents. TWPC samples were evaluated for preference and acceptability. Vitamins and carotenoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Total phenolics, curcumin and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometry. Centesimal composition was performed according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Chemical elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. TWPC containing 3.6 mg of curcumin showed good acceptability. Carotenoids and riboflavin were not detected in either TWPC. Vitamin C content was maintained, and antioxidant capacity was increased in both products (p < 0.05). TWPC-SD showed higher total phenolic and curcumin contents compared to TWPC-FMD (p < 0.05). Thus, the TWPC-SD is a good alternative for human consumption since it showed good sensory acceptability and its nutrients and bioactive compounds can contribute to human health.

Common Bean Protein Hydrolysate Modulates Lipid Metabolism and Prevents Endothelial Dysfunction in BALB/c Mice Fed an Atherogenic Diet

Mariana Juste Contim Gomes, Samara Leticia Lima de Silva, Natalia Elizabeth Galdino Alves, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Elvira Gonzales de Mejia, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases,v.30, p. 141-150
Impact factor: 3.340

Abstract: Background and aims: Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysate is a source of bioactive peptides with known health benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of common bean protein hydrolysate on lipid metabolism and endothelial function in male adult BALB/c mice fed an atherogenic diet for nine weeks. Methods and results: Male adult mice were divided into three experimental groups (n Z 12) and fed with normal control diet; atherogenic diet and atherogenic diet added with bean protein hydrolysate (700 mg/kg/day) for nine weeks. Food intake, weight gain, lipid profile, Atherogenic Index of Plasma, inflammation biomarkers and endothelial function were evaluated. APH group presented reduced feed intake, weight gain, lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-a, angiotensin II (94% and 79%, respectively) and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (62%). Conclusions: Protein hydrolysate showed hypocholesterolemic activity preventing inflammation and dysfunction of vascular endothelium, in addition to decreasing oxidative stress, indicating an adjuvant effect on reducing atherogenic risk.

Computing and Oral Health: Mobile Solution for Collecting, Data Analysis, Managing and Reproducing Epidemiological Research in Population Groups

Nilton Vale Cavalcante, Ary Henrique Oliveira, Bruno Vinicius Cunha de Sá, Glenda Botelho, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Glauce Dias da Costa, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 17, p. 1076-1096
Impact factor: 2.468

Abstract: Epidemiological inquiries study and evaluate the health status of the population. For dental caries, theWorld Health Organization (WHO) recommends the DMFT and DMFS indexes, which represent the sum of the decayed, missing and filled teeth, divided by the population studied. Traditionally these surveys are conducted using cellulose paper sheet. This study describes the development and presents the field performance of NutriOdonto, a software created for an Oral Health Survey carried out in 2018 and 2019 involving 2578 students from the municipal schools of Palmas/TO, located in the Brazilian. Amazon region. This is a descriptive, applied research on the development of a software for the collecting, analysis,management and reproducibility of oral health epidemiological research. A software applied to the collecting, analysis and formation of the database was developed through the information obtained fromthe questionnaires applied to the participants of the study and the completion of the electronic oral examination form. Recent Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are intelligently configured. to createmodels andmobile applications (Apps) that can be useful tomanage health issues, thus broadening the perspective of service provision in this sector. Some of thesemobile devices, tablets and smartphones are being developed to generate information, for collection, recording, storage and analysis of oral health epidemiological research data. NutriOdonto contributed to the rapid collection, recording and storage of information, in the construction of the database and its analysis. Replacing paper forms with electronic formsminimized possible typos, reduced the use of cellulose paper and the financial costs, among other things. This software can contribute to decisionmaking bymanagers and professionals and to improving the planning and implementation of actions in health promotion and oral disease prevention.

Cutoff Point Estimation for Serum Vitamin D Concentrations to Predict Cardiometabolic Risk in Brazilian Children.

Luana Cupertino Milagres, Mariana de Santis Filgueiras, Naruna Pereira Rocha, Lara Gomes Suhett, Fernanda Martins de Albuquerque, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Juliana Farias de Novaes
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, v. 74, p. 1-9
Impact factor: 3.114

Abstract: Background/objectives To evaluate serum 25(OH)D concentrations and determine a cutoff point for cardiometabolic risk in children. Subject/methods This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 378 8–9-year-old children from all urban schools in the city of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Sociodemographic data and information on lifestyle, and food consumption were collected. Biochemical evaluation included glucose, triglycerides, leptin, calcidiol [25(OH)D], and parathormone. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cardiometabolic risk was considered when nontraditional risk markers were detected, including triglyceride × glycemia index (TyG index), hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to define the cutoff point for serum 25 (OH)D to predict cardiometabolic risk. Results 25(OH)D showed better predictive capacity for grouping of cardiometabolic risk markers than for either single or paired markers. The area under the curve for grouping of risk markers was 0.636 (95% CI: 0.585, 0.685, P < 0.001). The cutoff point to predict cardiometabolic risk was defined as 32.0 ng/mL. Conclusion 25(OH)D presented good predictive capacity for cardiometabolic risk and 25(OH)D concentration higher than 32 ng/mL was associated with a 49% reduction of cardiometabolic risk prevalence in prepubertal Brazilian children.

Cytokines and body adiposity in young female undergraduate students

Deyliane Aparecida de Almeida Pereira, Lucimar Aguiar da Silva, Sílvia Oliveira Lopes, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Nutritión Hospitalaria,v. 37, p. 299-305
Impact factor: 0.759

Abstract: Objective:Impact factor to identify cytokines and to associate them with several indexes of total and central adiposity in young female undergraduate students. Methods: 58 young female sophomore students, aged 18 to 25 years, from a Brazilian public university were evaluated. Both anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference) and body composition were assessed through DXA, and the values of android, gynoid and truncal fat mass were obtained. Cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 e TNF-α) were analyzed, and Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI), Conicity Index (CCI), Waist-Hip Index (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Fat Mass Distribution Index 1 (FMI1) and Fat Mass Distribution Index 2 (FMI2) were calculated. Eventually, a linear regression was carried out to determine the regression coefficient and confidence interval (CI), having the predictor variables (cytokines) adjusted according to age and family history of obesity. The statistical significance of α = 5 % was applied. Results: a correlation between adiposity indexes and cytokines (CCI, WHR and IL-12; CCI, WHR, FMI1, FMI2 and TNF-α) was identified. When it comes to the regression models, cytokines increase was related to CCI, WHR, FMI1 and FMI2 increase. Conclusion: pro-inflammatory cytokines were associated with an increase in adipose indexes. Therefore, these indexes became a feasible strategy for clinical practice in order to identify propensity to inflammatory disorders.

Dietary Fat Intake and its Association with Adiposity and Inflammatory Markers in Individuals at Cardiometabolic Risk

Fernanda Santos Fortes, Alinne Paula de Almeida, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Brenda Kelly Souza Silveira, Nínive de Almeida Reis, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences, v. 2020, p. 1-10

Abstract: Background: Fatty acids are important components of diet that may influence the development of CVD. Objective: To verify the relationship of dietary fatty acids with cardiometabolic markers in individuals at the cardiometabolic risk. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 282 subjects (116 M/166 F, 42 ± 16 years) attended the Cardiovascular Health Care Program, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil). Anthropometric and body composition measurements as well as metabolic and inflammatory markers were assessed by standard procedures. Demographic and lifestyle variables were obtained by semi-structured questionnaire. Food consumption was evaluated by 24h recall. Student’s t-test or Mann-Whitney-U test and chi-square test were used, considering the statistical significance level of 5% probability. Results: Individuals who eaten fat, fatty acids saturated and fatty acids polyunsaturated above recommendation (> 35, 7%, and 10% of caloric intake) were more likely to be overweight (p < 0.05). Those individuals with higher intake of medium-chain fatty saturated acids (≥ 1.05 g/d) had lower values (p < 0.05) of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio and higher values (p < 0.05) of total leukocytes, C-reactive protein and total cholesterol, and LDL. Subjects with higher of palmitoleic acid intake (≥ 0.94 g/d) presented higher values of BMI, fat percentage and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This cross-sectional study found different associations of dietary fat and cardiometabolic risk related to adiposity and inflammatory markers, according with chain-size and saturation, indicating the need the more detailed on the dietary assessment of obese patients to identify risk factors and established best strategies to control.

Dietary Fatty Acids as Nutritional Modulators of Sirtuins: A Systematic Review.

Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Nutrition Reviews, v. 78, p. 192-200
Impact factor: 5.779

Abstract: CONTEXT: The sirtuins (SIRT1 to SIRT7) constitute a family of highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent proteins. When activated, sirtuins control essential cellular processes to maintain metabolic homeostasis, while lack of expression of sirtuins has been related to chronic disease. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the role of fat consumption as a modulator of human sirtuins. DATA SOURCES:This review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies were identified by searches of the electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. STUDY SELECTION:Randomized clinical trials assessing the effect of fatty acid consumption on sirtuin mRNA expression, sirtuin protein expression, or sirtuin protein activity were eligible for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION:Two authors screened and determined the quality of the studies; disagreements were resolved by the third author. All authors compared the compiled data. RESULTS:Seven clinical studies with 3 different types of interventions involving healthy and nonhealthy participants were selected. Only SIRT1 and SIRT3 were evaluated. Overall, the evidence from clinical studies to date is insufficient to understand how lipid consumption modulates sirtuins in humans. The best-characterized mechanism highlights oleic acid as a natural activator of SIRT1. CONCLUSION:These results draw attention to a new field of interest in nutrition science. The possible activation of sirtuins by dietary fat manipulation may represent an important nutritional strategy for management of chronic and metabolic disease.

Dietary Inflammatory Potential, Cardiometabolic Risk and Inflammation in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Lara Gomes Suhett, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Bruna Clemente Cota, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 2020, p. 1-10
Impact factor: 6.704

Abstract: The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) is a tool developed for quantifying the dietary inflammatory potential of individuals’ diets, with the goal of assessing the effect of diet-associated inflammation on health outcomes. With most studies focusing on adults, little is known about the consequences for health of a more proinflammatory diet early in life. Hence, this study analyzed the available evidence on the association between the DII or the children’s C-DII (C-DIITM) and cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory biomarkers in children and adolescents. This systematic review was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search was performed at the LILACS, ScienceDirect, Cochrane and PubMed databases, without any restriction regarding the dates of the publications. A total of six observational studies qualified; including three cross-sectional and three longitudinal studies focused on children and adolescents between 3 and 18 years of age representing both sexes. All papers found a positive association between the DII or C-DII with cardiometabolic markers. These included adiposity (i.e., BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-height ratio and fat mass index), and/or to inflammatory biomarkers (interleukins 1, 2 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon gamma, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In conclusion, findings currently available in the literature indicate that a proinflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of early development of cardiometabolic and inflammatory changes during childhood. Also, the findings show the applicability of the DII and C-DII in epidemiological studies and underscore the need for strategies to encourage healthy, anti-inflammatory diets to prevent chronical illnesses

Dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, biochemistry profile and their associations with chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus

Emily de Souza. Ferreira, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Glauce Dias da Costa, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Luíza Delazari Borges, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Journal of Nutritional Science, v. 9, p. 1-7.

Abstract:The chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered a serious public health problem. The objective was investigating the association of DM with the anthropometric measures, biochemical profile and dietary intake in patients with CKD. Is a cross-sectional study done in 2017, with 51 patients previously diagnosed with CKD. We collect socio-demographic, lifestyle variables, anthropometric measurements, biochemical profile and dietary intake. We using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, followed by Pearson’s χ2 test and Student’s t test. Data were analysed using several multivariable logistic regression models, including the socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary intake and biochemical variable. Variables with P ≤ 0⋅20 in the univariate analyses were selected and kept in the block in the simple and multiple logistic regression analysis, to determine the differences between the categories and the factors associated with the presence of DM or not, remaining in the model final, only the significant variables (P ≤ 0⋅05). Each variable was adjusted for all other variables included in the univariate analysis. The strength of the association was assessed by the odds ratio and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The multivariate logistic regression analysis evidenced that the increase of 1 cm in waist circumference and 1 mg/dl in VLDL-c values increases the chance of DM, respectively, by 8⋅4 % (OR 1⋅076; P 0⋅05) and 8⋅8 % (OR 1⋅102; P 0⋅01). In contrast, an increase of 1 mg/dl in total cholesterol decreases the chance of developing DM by 3⋅1 % (OR 0⋅965; P 0⋅01), that is, it becomes a protective factor. The present study identified the associations between overweight, dietary intake and biochemical tests.

Dietary intake, clinical-nutritional status, and homocysteine in hemodialysis subjects: the mediating role of inflammation (NUGE-HD study).

Karla Pereira Balbino, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Aline Lage Wendling, Luciane Domingos Marota, Jaqueline Beatriz Silva Costa, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, v. 45, p.845-850.
Impact factor: 3.455

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that inflammation mediates the associations among food intake, clinical-nutritional status, and plasma homocysteine (Hcys) in hemodialysis (HD) subjects. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data on 129 subjects undergoing HD (58.9% male, 61.8 ± 15.5 years of age) from the cohort Nutrition and Genetics on HD outcomes (NUGE-HD study). Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and metabolic data were collected, and food intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as an inflammatory marker. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. Regarding the direct effects, complex B vitamin intake was negatively associated with body mass index, and diabetes mellitus was positively associated with CRP. Plasma CRP also showed a negative association with Hcys, and the ratio of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake showed a positive association with Hcys. Regarding indirect effects, the results showed that the relationship between the presence of diabetes mellitus and Hcys is mediated by plasma CRP. In conclusion, the ratio of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids had a direct effect on plasma Hcys, whereas inflammation had a direct and mediating effect on the relationship between Hcys and diabetes mellitus in HD subjects. Novelty In end-stage renal disease, CRP influences plasma Hcys directly and also indirectly through its mediating effect. The quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids influence plasma Hcys concentrations in HD subjects.

Dietary intake of specific amino acids and liver status in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: fatty liver in obesity (FLiO) study.

Cristina Galarregui, Irene Cantero, Bertha Araceli Marin-Alejandre, J. Ignacio Monreal
Mariana Elorz, Alberto Benito-Boillos, José Ignacio Herrero, Víctor de la O, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Helen Hermana M. Hermsdorff, Josefina Bressan, Josep A. Tur, J. Alfredo Martínez, M. Angeles Zulet, Itziar Abete
European Journal of Nutrition, v. 59, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 4.449

Abstract: Purpose: Identification of dietary factors involved in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is relevant to the current epidemics of the disease. Dietary amino acids appear to play a key role in the onset and progression of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to analyze potential associations between specific dietary amino acids and variables related to glucose metabolism and hepatic status in adults with overweight/obesity and NAFLD. Methods: One hundred and twelve individuals from the Fatty Liver in Obesity (FLiO) study were evaluated. Liver assessment was carried out by ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and analysis of biochemical parameters. Dietary amino acid intake (aromatic amino acids (AAA); branched-chain amino acids (BCAA); sulfur amino acids (SAA)) was estimated by means of a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Results: Higher consumption of these amino acids was associated with worse hepatic health. Multiple adjusted regression models confirmed that dietary AAA, BCAA and SAA were positively associated with liver fat content. AAA and BCAA were positively associated with liver iron concentration. Regarding ferritin levels, a positive association was found with BCAA. Dietary intake of these amino acids was positively correlated with glucose metabolism (glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and glucose index) although the significance disappeared when potential confounders were included in the model. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the consumption of specific dietary amino acids might negatively impact on liver status and, to a lesser extent on glucose metabolism in subjects with overweight/obesity and NAFLD. A control of specific dietary amino acid composition should be considered in the management of NAFLD and associated insulin resistance

Discussion cycles of food and nutrition security: promoting the exchange of knowledge between the classroom and the community

Sílvia Oliveira Lopes, Dayane de Castro Morais, Elizangela da Silva Miguel, Paula Torres Trivellato, Luiza Veloso Dutra, Carina Aparecida Pinto, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Revista Elo – Diálogo em Extensão, v. 9, p.1-15

Abstract: The objective of the work is to analyze the results and reflections generated in the meetings of the “Cycle of Discussion on Food and Nutritional Security”. In these cycles the constructions of the discipline are shared “Determinants of Food and Nutritional Insecurity”, disseminating and valuing graduate work and documents on themes related to Food and Nutritional Security. The analysis of the topics discussed in Cycles, through content and similarity analysis, is considered as guidelines of the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy (PNSAN). Eight cycles were carried out, the latter being. All discussions are based on different themes that allow the context of the Food and Nutritional Security and include at least one of the axes of the PNSAN guidelines. Conclude that actions like these are important to stimulate critical thinking beyond the classroom and provide an exchange of knowledge between university and community, consolidating high school, research and extension.

Effect of a Nutritional Intervention, Based on Transtheoretical Model, on Metabolic Markers and Food Consumption of Individuals Undergoing Hemodialysis

Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Karla Pereira Balbino, Andreza de Paula Epifanio, Monica de Paula Jorge, Ana Vládia Bandeira Moreira
Journal of Renal Nutrition, v. 2020, p.1-10
Impact factor: 2.750

Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nutritional intervention, based on the transtheoretical model, on the metabolic markers and dietary intake of individuals undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Methods: Intervention study at a nephrology clinic includes 83 individuals undergoing HD, over a period of 4 months. The nutritional intervention based on the transtheoretical model was composed of two group meetings and three individual ones, with delivery of personalized food plans and nutritional education activities. Anthropometry, dietary intake, metabolic markers, and stage of behavior change were evaluated before and after nutritional intervention. Results: There was a significant change from the stage of contemplation to the stage of action, after the intervention (P,.001). There was a significant reduction in serum concentrations of creatinine and predialysis and postdialysis urea (P , .001). Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalemia in the group were also significantly reduced as were markers related to bone metabolism (P , .001). The markers of iron metabolism (P , .001), protein (P 5 .042), and globulin (P , .001) showed a significant increase. Regarding food consumption, the caloric intakes (P 5 .034), cholesterol (P 5 .034), protein, and lipid as well as intake of iron, phosphorus, potassium, copper, and vitamin C (P , .001) were significantly higher after intervention. Conclusions: The nutritional intervention based on the transtheoretical model promoted a change in the behavior of individuals undergoing HD, with an important improvement in their metabolic control. This can be explained by the significant change in the intake of calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients, as well as adequate use of phosphorus binders, indicating the crucial role of nutrition in this group.

Effect of chronic consumption of nuts on oxidative stress: a systematic review of clinical trials

Brenda Kelly Souza Silveira, Alessandra da Silva, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Josefina Bressan
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 60, p. 1-12.
Impact factor: 6.704

Abstract: Nuts consumption has been associated with a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress-related disorders. We aimed to perform a systematic review with clinical trials to assess the impact of chronic nuts consumption on oxidative stress and the possible mechanisms involved. Studies were identified by searching in three electronic databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and LILACS, and selected following PRISMA guidelines. Two authors perform searching and data extraction. A total of 16 articles were included (12 randomized clinical trials and 4 one or two-arm clinical trials). Nut doses were generally high (> 30 g/d), except for Brazil nuts (5-13 g/d). The follow-up time ranges between four weeks and six months, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) was the most assessed biomarker. Eight articles reported improvement in oxidative stress biomarkers after nuts supplementation. Pathways regulated by selenium (e.g. glutathione peroxidase activity and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulation), monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g. reduction of LDL oxidation), and bioactive compounds (e.g. antioxidant activity) were described as mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects. No studies reported harmful effects of nut consumption, even in high doses. The chronic consumption of nuts seemed to be effective to change some oxidative stress biomarkers, however, this topic remains controversial because the benefits depends on nut type, nut dose, and population characteristics.

Effects of curcumin supplementation on sport and physical exercise: a systematic review Effects of curcumin supplementation on sport and physical exercise: a systematic review

Lara Gomes Suhett, Brenda Kelly Souza Silveira, Arieta Carla Gualandi Leal, Alice Divina Melo de Brito, Juliana Farias de Novaes, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 2020, p.1-13
Impact factor: 6.704

Abstract: Curcumin is the main phenolic compound in turmeric. It has been investigated recently due to its numerous medicinal properties and health benefits. However, few studies assessed the effects of curcumin supplementation on physical activity practice. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to assess the available evidences with human beings about the potential effects of curcumin supplementation on sport and physical exercise. This systematic review was conducted within the period from January to February, 2019, following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guidelines. The LILACS, Medline, SciELO and PubMed databases were used for the search, with no publication date limit. The following terms, with the respective Boolean operators, were searched: “curcumin” AND sports; “curcumin” AND exercise; curcumin AND “aerobic exercise”; “curcumin” AND “resistance exercise”; “curcumin” AND “endurance exercise”; “curcumin” AND “strength exercise”. Eleven papers were selected for this review. Most of the studies displayed positive effects of the curcumin supplementation for athletes and physical exercise practitioners, and no side effects were reported. Participants supplemented with curcumin displayed reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, decreased pain and muscle damage, superior recovery and muscle performance, better psychological and physiological responses (thermal and cardiovascular) during training and improved gastrointestinal function. Curcumin supplementation appears to be safe and beneficial for sport and physical exercise in human beings

Effect of different fractions of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) on glucose metabolism, in vivo and in vitro

Bárbara Nery Enes, Luiza de Paula Dias Moreira, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Érica Aguiar Moraes, Maria Eliza de Castro Moreira, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Giuliana Noratto, Susanne Ursula Mertens-Talcott, StephenTalcott, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Journal of Functional Food, v.71, p.1-11
Impact factor: 3.197

Abstract: The influence of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour and oil on glucose metabolism (GM) in insulin resistant (IR) Wistar rats and the effect of chia hydrolyzed phenolics extract (CHPE) on GM in IR HepG2 cells were evaluated. In vivo study: animals were divided into four groups: AIN-93M, high-fat and high-fructose (HFHF), HFHF with chia flour (14.7%) or chia oil (4%). In vitro study: IR HepG2 cells were treated with CHPE (80 ppm). In vivo, chia flour and oil reduced adiposity and increased AMPK mRNA. Chia oil improved glucose tolerance, increased AKT1[pS473] protein level, mRNA of insulin receptor, FOXO1 and glycolysis enzymes. In vitro, CHPE decreased gluconeogenesis enzymes mRNA. Chia flour and oil decreased adiposity, but only chia oil was able to improve glucose tolerance and restore energy fuel system in liver of rats fed HFHF diet. CHPE decreased mRNA levels of gluconeogenesis enzymes.

Effects of the dietary fat quality on metabolic endotoxemia: a systematic review

Thalita Lin Netto Cândido, Laís Emilia da Silva, Juliana Ferreira Tavares, Ana Carolina Muller Conti, Rômulo Augusto Guedes Rizzardo, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
British Journal of Nutrition, v. 2020, p.1-14
Impact factor: 3.319

Abstract: In this systematic review, we critically evaluated human clinical trials that assessed the effects of dietary fat quality on metabolic endotoxaemia. The studies were selected from three databases (PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library), and the keywords were defined according to the Medical Subject Headings indexing terminology. Two authors searched independently, according to the pre-defined selection criteria. Quality and risk assessment of bias for each selected study were also evaluated. The results of the included studies demonstrated associations between higher SFA intake and increased postprandial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations. On the other hand, after the consumption of PUFA, bloodstream LPS concentrations were lower. However, in none of the long-term studies, the consumption of dietary fats did not seem to exert effects on LPS concentration. Hence, SFA seem to act as a risk factor for transient increase in endotoxaemia, while PUFA demonstrated exerting a protective effect. Taken together, the evidence suggests that the dietary fatty acid profile may influence bloodstream endotoxin concentrations through modulation of factors such

Effects of yacon flour associated with an energy restricted diet on intestinal permeability, fecal short chain fatty acids, oxidative stress and inflammation markers levels in adults with obesity or overweight: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial.

Adriane Moreira Machado, Nayara Benedito Martins da Silva, José Benício Paes Chaves,Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, v. 2020, p.1-11
Impact factor: 1.571

Abstract: Objectives: Yacon flour is rich in bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds and fructooligosaccharides (FOS)), and may therefore reduce the risk of diseases associated with excess body weight. However, its effect on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA), intestinal permeability, oxidative stress and inflammation markers has not been studied in adult humans with excess body weight. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the consumption of yacon flour on these variables. Materials and methods Twenty-six excess body weight (30.4 ± 2.4 kg/m²) adults (31.3 ± 8.5y) were randomized to one of two groups (yacon flour or control; n = 13) on a double blind clinical trial. Subjects received a breakfast drink containing or not yacon flour (25g) associated with an energy restricted diet, for six weeks. The flour chemical characterization, FOS and total phenolics contents were evaluated. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (plasma). Intestinal permeability, fecal SCFA, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers also were evaluated in vivo. Results: Yacon flour was well tolerated. It presented an in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity, increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (ΔYAC: 49.16 (-4.20; 156.63)) and reduced protein carbonyl concentrations (ΔYAC: -0.98 (-1.54; -0.42)). A reduction in SCFAs was observed in both groups (Δacetic: -3.16 (-5.07; -0.95) vs. -1.05 (-2.65; 1.11); Δpropionic: -1.05 (-2.60;-0.38) vs. -0.41 (-2.08; 0.09); Δbutyric: -0.75 (-1.38; -0.04) vs. -0.28 (-0.98; 0.11), for YAC and CON, respectively). Other variables did not change. Conclusion: The yacon flour increased the plasma antioxidant capacity, decreased oxidative stress and SCFAs in adults with obesity or overweight.

Equation of height estimation from knee height: Performance in the composition of body adiposity INDICES in older adults

Gloria Maria Moraes Souza, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanho, Patricia Feliciano Pereira, Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, v. 2020, p.1-6
Impact factor: 6.402

Abstract: Aim: To propose an equation to estimate height and evaluate it’s performance in the composition of adiposity indicators in community-dwelling older adults in Brazil. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with 675 community-dwelling older adults (60 anos). Interviews and anthropometric measurements were taken at subjects’ homes. Body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist height ratio (WHR), and conicity index (CI) were calculated. The height estimation equation was obtained by multiple linear regression. Concordance between height and the indicators measured and estimated was evaluated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen’s Kappa and Weighted Kappa indexes. Concordance was also evaluated by the Bland and Altman graphical approach. Results: Equations of height estimation composed of knee height, sex, and schooling were proposed and stratified by age group (60e74 years and 75 years). In both age groups, almost perfect agreement (ICC  0.915 and Kappa 0.81) was found between height and adiposity indicators estimated and measured. Conclusion: The equation proposed is suitable to estimate height of the older adults, and can be a valuable tool for the evaluation of the nutritional status of Brazilian older adults in the community.

Evaluation of the efficacy of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile in vivo

Thaís Lessa Silva, Udielle Vermelho Lacerda, Sérgio Luís Pinto da Matta, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Paulo César Stringheta, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros
Journal of Food Science, b. 87, p.2236-2244
Impact factor: 2.081

Abstract: The objective of the present work was to evaluate and compare the effect of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours on lipid metabolism and antioxidant potential in vivo . Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were induced to oxidative stress with paracetamol and fed a normal diet (AIN‐93M) and diets containing toasted tannin sorghum flour and toasted white sorghum flour (without tannins), replacing 100% cellulose, during 29 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by biochemical tests and by quantifying oxidative stress markers. Groups that received toasted sorghum flour with and without tannins showed reduction of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration and improvement of lipid profile, with increase of high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to paracetamol control, and did not differ statistically from the AIN‐93M control. Moreover, toasted white sorghum flour presented similar efficacy in reducing oxidative stress in liver tissue compared to toasted tannin sorghum flour, although the former had lower total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, suggesting a greater effect of small phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, in the prevention of oxidative stress. Therefore, toasted white and tannin sorghum flours had similar efficacy to improve the lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats treated with paracetamol, constituting potential sources of antioxidants, which can be used as promising ready‐to‐eat foods and as ingredients for the development of sorghum‐based products. Practical Application The health benefits of sorghum coupled with the growing interest of the food industry in producing healthier food products have motivated the development of toasted sorghum flours as potential sources of antioxidants and dietary fiber. We have demonstrated that consumption of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours by rats treated with paracetamol had similar efficacy to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile. Thus, these toasted sorghum flours have great potential to be used by the food industry as ready‐to‐eat foods or as ingredients in the development of various food products.

Evaluation indicators of Food and Nutritional Insecurity and associated factors: systematic review

Dayane de Castro Morais, Silvia Oliveira Lopes, Silvia Eloíza Priore
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 25, p. 2687-2700.
Impact factor: 1.008

Abstract: The scope of this paper was to systematically investigate the indicators used in the evaluation of food and nutritional insecurity and associated factors in Brazilian studies. After selection in the databases using search terms and reverse search, 89 articles were included. The majority of the articles evaluated food and nutritional insecurity according to the indicator of perception, using the Brazilian Scale of Food Insecurity (83.1%), the American Scale (5.62%) and isolated questions (2.25%). The other articles evaluated the presence of malnutrition among children (1.12%), expenditure on food (1.12%), adult-equivalent dietary intake (1.12%), protocols (2.25%), and prediction models (2.25%). Food and nutritional insecurity (measured by the different indicators) was associated with socioeconomic and demographic factors, health and lifestyle conditions, food consumption and nutritional status, based on families, specific age groups, beneficiaries of government programs, among others, as sample units. The majority of the studies merely evaluated the food dimension of the insecurity, thereby increasing the difficulty in evaluating this complex situation.

Evaluation of the efficacy of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile in vivo

Thaís Lessa Silva, Udielle Vermelho Lacerda, Sérgio Luís Pinto da Matta, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Paulo César Stringheta, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros
Journal of Food Science, b. 87, p.2236-2244
Impact factor: 2.081

Abstract: The objective of the present work was to evaluate and compare the effect of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours on lipid metabolism and antioxidant potential in vivo . Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were induced to oxidative stress with paracetamol and fed a normal diet (AIN‐93M) and diets containing toasted tannin sorghum flour and toasted white sorghum flour (without tannins), replacing 100% cellulose, during 29 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by biochemical tests and by quantifying oxidative stress markers. Groups that received toasted sorghum flour with and without tannins showed reduction of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration and improvement of lipid profile, with increase of high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to paracetamol control, and did not differ statistically from the AIN‐93M control. Moreover, toasted white sorghum flour presented similar efficacy in reducing oxidative stress in liver tissue compared to toasted tannin sorghum flour, although the former had lower total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, suggesting a greater effect of small phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, in the prevention of oxidative stress. Therefore, toasted white and tannin sorghum flours had similar efficacy to improve the lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats treated with paracetamol, constituting potential sources of antioxidants, which can be used as promising ready‐to‐eat foods and as ingredients for the development of sorghum‐based products. Practical Application The health benefits of sorghum coupled with the growing interest of the food industry in producing healthier food products have motivated the development of toasted sorghum flours as potential sources of antioxidants and dietary fiber. We have demonstrated that consumption of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours by rats treated with paracetamol had similar efficacy to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile. Thus, these toasted sorghum flours have great potential to be used by the food industry as ready‐to‐eat foods or as ingredients in the development of various food products.

Factors associated with bone mineral content in adults: a population-based study

Katia Josiany Segheto, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Cristiane Junqueira de  Carvalho, Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva, Giana Zarbato Longo
Einstein, v. 18. P. 1-7
H index : 16

Abstract: Objective: To determine the association among bone mineral content, sociodemographic, anthropometric and behavioral factors, and health status of Brazilian adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study including 701 individuals from both sexes aged between 20 and 59 years. DEXA was used to evaluate dependent variable. The associations were evaluated using linear regression models stratified by sex. Results: When mean bone mineral content values were compared, we found significant differences related to sex and all the independent variables evaluated. In the adjusted models, we identified an inverse association between bone mineral content and age in both sexes. Among men, to be overweight and/or obese, be highly educated, and have almost sufficiency of 25(OH)D were associated with higher bone mineral content values. On the other hand, among women, to be non-white skin color, overweight and/or obese were associated with better bone health. The main factors associated with low total bone mineral density were advanced age, white skin color, low level of formal education, eutrophy, and 25(OH) D deficiency. Conclusion: Our results may help to identify adults who are at higher risk, and these findings should be used as guidelines for prevention and early diagnosis.

Factors associated with food security in households in the urban area of the state of Tocantins, Northern Brazil

Eloise Schott, Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, v. 23, p. 1-13.

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with food insecurity in families living in the urban area of Tocantins/Brazil. Methods: This is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the urban area of 22 municipalities in the 8 microregions of the state. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the head of household to obtain socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA) was used to assess food insecurity at home. The anthropometric assessment of the residents was made by measuring weight, height/length and waist circumference. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the association of food insecurity with individual/household variables, and Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare whether there was a difference in the prevalence of food insecurity between microregions and between families with and without individuals under 18 years. Results: A total of 596 households were evaluated, of which 63.4% were in a food insecurity situation. The final model of the multivariate analysis showed that low head-of-household schooling, low per capita income, receiving social assistance benefits and lack of clean drinking water in the household were associated with food insecurity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal the high prevalence of food insecurity in the families studied and their associated factors, showing the need for local actions and public policies to improve health conditions, education and income of the population, and consequently, improve the scenario of food and nutritional insecurity in the state.

Factors Associated with Microalbuminuria in Non-Diabetic Hypertension Patients.

Autores: Mariana Louzada Prates, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Emily de Souza Ferreira, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Glauce Dias da Costa, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Luíza Delazari Borges, Heloísa Helena Dias, Luma de Oliveira Comini, Laura Camargo Oliveira, Giovane de Lelis Cupertino, Juliana Costa Machado
Health Science Journal, v.14, p.728-733

Abstract: The objective was to evaluate the factors associated with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic hypertension (AH) patients in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC). The parameters investigated were per capita salt consumption, lipid
and hematimetric profile, waist circumference and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared in individuals with microalbuminuria (MA) and without MA. BackWard multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the influence of the analyzed variables on UAE. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 21.9%, the mean GFR using the CKP-EPI formula was 65.04 and 60.89 mL/min/1.73m², respectively, among the groups without MA and with MA. Waist circumference and serum creatinine contributed in the explanation of 63.5% in the variation of excreted levels. The patients with AH with MA presented lower GFR, suggesting possible progression to renal disease. Screening for MA should be a frequent
practice in PHC, especially in patients with HA.

Factors associated with dietary patterns in the second half of life

Carolina Abreu de Carvalho, Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonseca, Luciana Neri Nobre, Mariane Alves Silva, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Silvia Eloíza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 25, p. 449-459
Impact factor: 1.008

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify eating patterns of children aged 6, 9 and 12 months and their association with socioeconomic, behavioral, birth and nutrition variables. Cross-sectional study with children from a cohort in Viçosa-MG, with 112 children at 6 months, 149 at 9 months and 117 at 12 months. Food intake was assessed by a 24-hour recall and patterns extracted by cluster analysis. Breast milk was identified
in at least one dietary pattern every month. There was a low participation of ultra-processed foods in the identified dietary patterns. At month 6, children with lower family income were less likely to belong to the dietary pattern composed of milk formulas. Already overweight/obesity was 3.69 times higher in children who made up the pattern 2 (dairy formulas, vegetables, vegetables, beef and pear). At 12 months height deficit (PR = 3.28) and bottle use (PR = 4.51) were associated with the dietary pattern composed of milk formulas and cow’s milk. The dietary patterns identified reflected the important participation of breast milk in children’s diets. Dietary patterns with the presence of other types of milk were associated with nutritional deviations and bottle feeding.

Food consumption by degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk: a systematic review.

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Jéssica Viana Hinkelman, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Maria de Los Angeles Zulet, José Alfredo Martinez, Josefina Bressan
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v.2020, p.1-15
Impact factor: 1.202

Abstract: Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has been associated with development of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD). This systematic review aims to summarise and discuss evidence of the relationship between food consumption according to degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk. Data search was conducted in databases as PubMed, Bireme and Science Direct until July 2018. Studies have shown a positive association of UPF consumption with excess body weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome features. However, disparities found in the studies analysed regarding dietary assessment, confounding factors and differences in food classifications makes comparisons between studies difficult. In conclusion, current evidences indicate the need to monitor UPF intake in global population. However, more studies are necessary to interpret better these associations with similar methodologies used in the studies. As well as longitudinal analyses can help to improve comparisons between outcomes and establish cause-effect relationship between UPF intake and cardiometabolic risk.

Food consumption by degree of processing and cardiometabolic risk: a systematic review.

Talitha Silva Meneguelli, Jéssica Viana Hinkelman, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Maria de Los Angeles Zulet, José Alfredo Martinez, Josefina Bressan
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, v.2020, p.1-15
Impact factor: 1.202

Abstract: Processed and ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has been associated with development of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD). This systematic review aims to summarise and discuss evidence of the relationship between food consumption according to degree of food processing and cardiometabolic risk. Data search was conducted in databases as PubMed, Bireme and Science Direct until July 2018. Studies have shown a positive association of UPF consumption with excess body weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome features. However, disparities found in the studies analysed regarding dietary assessment, confounding factors and differences in food classifications makes comparisons between studies difficult. In conclusion, current evidences indicate the need to monitor UPF intake in global population. However, more studies are necessary to interpret better these associations with similar methodologies used in the studies. As well as longitudinal analyses can help to improve comparisons between outcomes and establish cause-effect relationship between UPF intake and cardiometabolic risk.

Food processing and risk of hypertension: Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil (CUME Project)

Katiusse Rezende-Alves, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Aline Elizabeth da Silva Miranda, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes, Josefina Bressan, Adriano Marçal Pimenta
Public Health Nutrition, v.2020, p. 1-9
Impact factor 2.526

Abstract: Objective: To analyse the association between food consumption according to the degree of processing and incidence of hypertension in CUME project participants. Design: Longitudinal study in which food consumption was evaluated according to the percentage contribution of daily energetic intake (%/d) of each NOVA classification group (unprocessed/minimally processed foods and culinary preparations (U/MPF&CP); processed foods and ultra-processed foods (UPF)). Hypertension was defined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) criteria. Adjusted relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated by Poisson regression models with robust variances. Setting: Brazil. Participants: 1221 graduates classified as non-hypertensive at baseline and monitored for 2 years. Results: Daily energetic percentage from each group according to degree of processing was 64·3 (sd 12) % for U/MPF&CP; 9·9 (sd 5·8) % for processed foods and 25·8 (sd 11) % for UPF. Incidence of hypertension was high (152/1000 person-years; n 113, 193/1000 person-years in males and n 257, 138/1000 person-years in females). After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the upper quintile of daily energetic intake of U/MPF&CP presented a reduced risk of hypertension (RR: 0·72; 95 % CI 0·52, 0·98), while those in the upper quintile of daily energetic intake of UPF presented an increased risk of the outcome (RR: 1·35; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·81). Conclusions: In this prospective cohort of Brazilian middle-aged adult university graduates, the highest consumptions of U/MPF&CP and UPF were associated with, respectively, reduced and increased risk of hypertension. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results.

Food safety, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities, and in vivo protein quality of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in Wistar rats

Monique Ellen Torres da Silva, Kely de Paula Correa, Marcio Arêdes Martins, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra
Journal of Functional Foods, v. 65, p.103711-103721
Impact factor: 3.197

Abstract: The present study evaluated the safety of dietary administration of the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus at high doses, the influence on blood biochemical profile, and in vivo protein quality in male Wistar rats. The microalga exhibited a high amount of fibers, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, linolenic and linoleic acid, and great antioxidant activity. The diet containing Scenedesmus obliquus was well tolerated, with good protein digestibility and maintenance of growth and weight of the animals. The intake of the microalga reduced triglycerides of up to 70%, atherogenic index of up to 80%, and serum glucose of up to 42% concentrations as compared with the standard diet. No alterations were observed in the analyzed organs by histology, suggesting that the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus can be used as potential safe food and may represent a sustainable source of food.

Fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults: influence of urban food environment in a medium-sized Brazilian city

Luciene Fátima Fernandes Almeida, Taiane Gonçalves Novaes, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Ariene Silva do Carmo, Larissa Loures Mendes, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2020, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 2.526

Abstract: Objective: To examine the association between urban food environment and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) by older adults from a medium-sized Brazilian city. Design: Cross-sectional study based on data related to (1) objective assessment of establishments with predominant sale of unprocessed/minimally processed foods, mixed establishments and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods; (2) regular consumption of FV (≥ 5 times/week), health and sociodemographic variables of community-dwelling older adults. Tertiles of proximity between food establishments and older adults’ residence were calculated. Poisson generalised estimating equations with robust variance, adjusted for individual and
contextual variables, were used to estimate the independent association between the proximity of establishments and regular consumption of FV. Setting: Medium-sized Brazilian city. Subjects: Representative sample of community-dwelling older adults (n 549). Results: Older adults travelled the longest distances to establishments with predominant sale of unprocessed/minimally processed foods. The longer the distance to establishments with predominant sale of unprocessed/minimally processed foods, the lower the prevalence of regular consumption of FV (tertile 2: prevalence ratio (PR) = 0·86; 95 % CI = 0·74, 0·99; tertile 3: PR = 0·84; 95 % CI = 0·72, 0·97).  Older adults living larger distance tertiles from establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods, mixed establishments or all categories of establishments had 16 % (PR = 0·84; 95 % CI = 0·73, 0·96), 19 % (PR = 0·81; 95 % CI = 0·71, 0·93) and 19 % (PR = 0·81; 95 % CI = 0·70, 0·94) lower prevalence of regular consumption of FV, respectively. Conclusion: The food environment is associated with regular consumption of FV among older adults. Longer distances from the residence of older adults to food establishments are independently associated with lower prevalence of regular consumption of FV

General and Central Adiposity in Older Adults in Palmas (TO): Prevalence and Associated Factors.

Maria Sortenia Alves Guimarães, Killya de Paiva Santos, Joice da Silva Castro, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, v. 2020, p. 1-8
Impact factor: 2.080

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with general and central adiposity in older adults in Palmas (TO). Methods: Cross-sectional study with older adults (≥60 years) of both sexes enrolled in the Family Health Strategy program in Palmas (TO). Sociodemographic aspects, health conditions, and functionality were evaluated as independent variables and Body Mass Index (BMI) for general adiposity and Waist Circumference (WC) for central adiposity as dependent variables. Descriptive analysis and hierarchical multiple Poisson regression with robust variance were performed. Results: A total of 449 seniors (50.6% women) from 60 to 92 years of age, average of 68.3 years, were evaluated. The prevalence of general adiposity was 46.8% (95% CI: 42.2%–51.4%) and central adiposity was 78.8% (95% CI: 74.7%–82.3%). The prevalence of both outcomes was significantly higher among women and the participants with a history of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and rheumatic diseases and those dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) than among men. Lower frequency of adiposity (general and central) was found with increasing age. After adjustment, the prevalence of both outcomes was significantly higher in women aged 70–79 years and hypertensive. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the need to establish nutritional status monitoring and direct obesity prevention and control interventions in programs to promote health and quality of life of older adults and those in the stages prior to old age.

Hand grip strength as predictor of undernutrition in hospitalized patients with cancer and a proposal of cut-off

Nélia Pinheiro Mendes, Thalita Alves de Barros, Bruna Soares Faria, Erica Silva Aguiar
Cristiane Alves de Oliveira, Eliana Carla Gomes de Souza, Solange Silveira Pereira, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, v.39, p. 210-214.
Impact factor: 6.402

Resumo: Background & aims Hand Grip Strength (HGS) has been proposed as an indicator of nutritional status, being an easy and non-invasive method and presenting high reliability among evaluators. However, there are no cut-off points. To compare HGS with objective methods of nutritional assessment and to propose a cut-off point for its use as a predictor of malnutrition in cancer patients. Methods This is a retrospective study with 76 patients (52.6% females, 56.8 ± 16.6 years old) admitted with a diagnosis of cancer in hospitals of Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil). We evaluated the HGS of the dominant hand, Body Mass Index (BMI), calf circumference (CC), and arm circumference (AC), using the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, being the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) the reference method. Statistical tests were performed according to the distribution of the variables, verified by the Shapiro–Wilk test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results The HGS was higher in men (p = 0.001) and adults (p = 0.002). The HGS presented a better performance in the prediction of malnutrition (AUC = 0.766, 95% CI = 0.656–0.936) compared to the anthropometric indicators, with a cut-off point of 32.5 kg (sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 61.5%). The prevalence of malnutrition was 82.9% and 81.6% for PG-SGA and proposed cut-off point for HGS, respectively. Conclusions The HGS was more sensitive to identify individuals at risk of malnutrition compared to other recognized indicators of nutritional status, indicating its application in a hospital setting with cancer patients.

High-saturated fatty meals with orange juice intake have subjective appetite sensations suppressed: Acute, postprandial study.

Alessandra da Silva, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Lilian Lelis Lopes, Josefina Bressan, Helen Hermana M. Hermsdorff
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, v.92, p. 1-10.
Impact factor: 0.938

Abstract: Objective: To elucidate the acute effect of different high-fat meals accompanied by water or orange juice on subjective appetite sensations. Methods: This acute,
postprandial study included 39 healthy women (aged 20 to 40 years): 22 participants
received a high-monounsaturated fat meal (MUFA) (≈1000 kcal, 56.3% Energy from MUFA) and 17 participants received a high-saturated fat meal (SFA) (≈1000 kcal, 37.6% Energy from SFA). Both interventions were accompanied by 500 ml of water or orange juice. The subjective appetite sensations were evaluated before (fasting) and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 hours after the meal intake using the visual analog scale. Results: The subjective area under curve (AUC) appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores were equal after the consumption of high-fat meals from SFA and MUFA. Moreover, the consumption of a high-SFA meal raises the prospective desire to eat something fatty. In addition, the high-SFA meal consumption reduces subjective AUC appetite sensations and AUC appetite scores along the time, compared to a high-MUFA meal, when orange juice consumption followed those meals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that high-MUFA meal consumption decreased the desire to intake something fatty, and the high-SFA meal, when followed by orange juice intake, has postprandial appetite sensations suppressed.

Household availability of food based on the new classification of food and nutritional (in)security

Lanay Dias Barbosa, Lohane Karolina Melo Sousa, Eloise Schott, Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro, Silvia Eloíza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 25, p. 2701-2709
Impact factor 1.008

Abstract: The scope of this research was to characterize the household availability of food based on the classification adopted in the new Brazilian food guide and to analyze its relationship with food (in)security. It involved a population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 95 households in the State of Tocantins. Food (in)security was evaluated by means of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The household availability of food in the last 30 days was recorded and, subsequently, food was classified as in natura and/or minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed according to the new Brazilian food guide. The prevalence of food insecurity was 55.79%. It was found that the foods of the in natura and ultra-processed groups contributed the most to the household availability of food. There was a positive and significant relationship between the food security and food availability rates: milk, animal fat, canned food and cheese bread. The prevalence of food insecurity was high in this population group. In households with a higher level of food security, the availability of milk, animal fat, canned goods and cheese bread was significantly higher.

Identifying patterns of diurnal blood pressure variation among ELSA‐Brasil participants. 

Daniela P. Paula, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, José G. Mill, Maria J. M. Fonseca, Rosane H. Griep
The Journal of Clinical Hipertension, v. 22, p. 1-10.

Abstract: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of hypertension. ABPM provides a set of repeated measurements for blood pressure (BP), usually over 24 h. Traditional approaches characterize diurnal BP variation by single ABPM parameters such as average and standard deviation, regardless of the temporal nature of the data. In this way, information about the pattern of diurnal BP variation and relationship between parameters is lost. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize daily BP patterns considering the set of repeated measures from 24-h ABPM. A total of 859 adult participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) performed a 24-h ABPM record. Hypertension, sex, age, race/color, education, marital status, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and BMI were the covariables analyzed. Techniques for longitudinal clustering, multinomial models, and models with mixed effects were used. Three daily BP patterns were identified. Daily BP patterns with high BP presented higher standard deviation and morning surge and lower nocturnal dipping. They showed greater systolic BP variability and faster rise than fall in diastolic BP during sleep. Hypertensive, “pardos,” and men had greater odds to present these patterns. Daily BP patterns with high BP presented the worst profile concerning ABPM parameters associated with cardiovascular risk. The daily BP patterns identified contribute to the characterization of diurnal BP variation.

Implications of iodine deficiency by gestational trimester: a systematic review.

Aline Carare Candido, Francilene Maria Azevedo, Almeida Abudo Leite Machamba ,
Carina Aparecida Pinto, Sílvia Oliveira Lopes, Mariana de Souza Macedo, Sarah Aparecida Vieira Ribeiro, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism, v. 2020, p.1-7.

Abstract: As pregnant women are susceptible to changes in iodine, which can cause miscarriage, goiter, thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, in addition to fetal neurological impairment or development. The aim of this study was to verify the implications of the iodine alteration in each gestational trimester and its consequences of physiological justification. The review was based on PRISMA. Searching for articles that took place in March 2020 without delimiting data. As bases consulted were the Clinical Trials, Cochrane Library, Lilacs and Medline (PubMed). The descriptors were combined as follows: “pregnancy” AND “iodine deficiency”. Articles that addressed iodine deficiency and its implications were included. The selection followed the steps of reading the titles, abstracts and full articles. To assess the methodological quality of the studies, the STROBE Instruction instrument was used. The research resulted in 1,266 studies and 11 were included. In assessing methodological quality, the lowest score was and the maximum 20. According to studies, the fourth most affected by iodine loss are the second and third, it is possible to increase the volume and pneumatic nodules, subclinical hypothyroidism, pre-eclampsia, among others. The damages caused by iodine deficiency in the first or second trimester are still reversible, therefore, they need to be diagnosed early, to guarantee an iodic homeostasis and prevent damage to the health of the mother-child binomial

Individual and Combined Components of Metabolic Syndrome with Chronic Kidney Disease in Individuals with Hypertension and/or Diabetes Mellitus Accompanied by Primary Health Care.

Luma de Oliveira Comini, Laura Cardoso de Oliveira, Luiza Delazari Borges, Heloisa Helena Dias, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, v. 13, p. 71-80
Impact factor: 2.842

Abstract: Purpose: To identify the associations between MetS and its components and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a population with arterial hypertension (AH), or diabetes mellitus (DM) accompanied by the Primary Health Care (PHC). Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with 788 individuals diagnosed with AH and/or DM followed by PHC of Viçosa, Brazil. Anthropometric, biochemical and clinical measures were performed for the diagnosis of MetS and CKD. MetS was identified using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. CKD was identified by estimating the glomerular filtration rate using the CKD-EPI equation. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the chances of CKD associated with MetS and its components and specific combinations of components. Results: The prevalence ofMetS reported in the population was 65.4%, that of hidden CKD was 15.4%. The prevalence of CKD among participants with MetS was 75.2%. The most prevalent component of MetS in the population was AH (96.7%). Elevated fasting blood glucose, central obesity, and reduced HDL-c were significantly associated with an increased chance of CKD (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.76–4.45, OR = 1.68, 95% CI, 05–2.71, OR = 1.61, CI 95% 1.03–2.50, respectively). For the multivariate adjustment, the participants with MetS were 2 times more likely to have CKD than those withoutMetS (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.25–3.44). The combination of three components of MetS high blood pressure, abdominal obesity and elevated fasting blood glucose and the combination of four components of MetS high blood pressure, reduced HDL-c, high fasting blood glucose and abdominal obesity were associated with increased odds of CKD (OR = 2.67, CI 95% 1.70–4.20, OR = 2.50, CI 95% 1.55–4.02, respectively). Conclusion: MetS, as well as its individual or combined components were independently associated with CKD in the population with AH and/or DM accompanied by PHC. Keywords: high blood pressure, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, fasting blood glucose, HDL-c, estimated glomerular filtration rate

Kombuchas from green and black teas have different phenolic profile, which impacts their antioxidant capacities, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities.

Rodrigo Rezende Cardoso, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros
Food Research International, v. 128, 108782-108791
Impact factor: 3.579

Abstract: UPLC-QTOF-MSE phenolic profile of kombuchas produced from the fermentation of green tea or black tea at 25 °C for 10 days was investigated along with the determination of their antioxidant capacities, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Overall, 127 phenolic compounds (70.2% flavonoids, 18.3% phenolic acids, 8.4% other polyphenols, 2.3% lignans and 0.8% stilbenes) were identified, with 103 phenolic compounds reported for the first time in kombuchas. A greater diversity and abundance of phenolic compounds was detected in black tea kombucha, which resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity. However, the green tea kombucha was the only one that presented antibacterial activity against all the bacteria tested and an increased antiproliferative activity against the cancer cell lines, which was attributed to the presence of catechins among the most abundant phenolic compounds and verbascoside as an exclusive compound. Thus, the type of tea used in the kombucha production interferes in its bioactive composition and properties.

Maintenance of Probiotic Characteristics of Dry Kefir: Is It Possible?

Poliana Guiomar De Almeida Brasiel, Thaís Costa de Almeida,Kácia Mateus, Antônio Fernandes de Carvalho, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti, Maria Do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, v.2020, p. 1-10

Abstract: Kefir is a natural probiotic containing a complex mixture of bacteria and yeast associated in a matrix composed of protein and polysaccharide, and to it are attributed several beneficial properties to health. In this study, we have investigated the effect of kefir drying on the microbiological counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The viable bacteria and yeast counts in dry kefir were reduced when compared to fresh kefir 6.46 log cfu/g and 4.14 log cfu/g, respectively.. Thus, it was possible to maintain sufficient stability of microbes in the powdered product, indicating that industrial processing may contribute to the viability and survival of probiotic bacteria. Despite the technological challenges, the spray drying of kefir seems to be a promising method for the use of this probiotic complex on a larger scale.

Methodologies for assessing the household food availability in the context of food (in)security: a systematic review

Eloise Schott, Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende, Silvia Eloiza Priore, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Ciência e Saúde Coletivo, v. 25, p. 2677-2685
Impact factor 1.008

Abstract: This article aims to identify the methods used to assess household food availability in studies on food and nutritional security and to discuss its methodological aspects. Systematic review elaborated according to the PRISMA method. We searched at PubMed; Scielo and Lilacs databases, and studies that used methods of assessing the availability of food at home were included. In the end, 19 papers composed the review. Food availability was predominantly assessed for a seven days period and from a single data measurement. Other variables were also observed in the studies, such as socio-demographic data and expenditure on food. Among the limitations to assess the food availability at home, we can highlight the difficulty in measuring the food distribution among family members and the lack of information on the variability of this availability. Such assessment can be improved by investigating the strengths and weaknesses of the instruments for greater detail and accuracy of the information. We recommend the development and validation of specific instruments capable of effectively measure the food availability at the household level.

Mixed sorghum and quinoa flour improves protein quality and increases antioxidant capacity in vivo.

Oscar David Medina Martinez, Renata Celi Lopes Toledo, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Mônica Ribeiro Pirozi, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Frederico Augusto Ribeiro de Barros
LWT – Food Science and Technology, v. 129, p. 109597-109605
Impact factor: 3.714

Abstract: Quinoa is a pseudocereal that has high protein quality and sorghum has phenolic compounds that give it a higher antioxidant capacity, however, its protein quality is low. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the obtaining mixture of sorghum and quinoa flours on protein quality and antioxidant capacity in Wistar rats. The animals were allocated into five groups (n=8): protein-free, control (casein) and experimental groups: sorghum flour, quinoa flour, and mixed sorghum/quinoa flour. At 21 days of the experiment, animals from the control and experimental groups received sodium fluoride (NaF) water for seven days to induce oxidative stress. The groups fed with sorghum, quinoa, and mixed flour sorghum/quinoa had, respectively, PER values of 0.23, 2.0, 1.5; NPR 1.82, 3.36, 2.88 and TD 60.22, 81.46, 66.82 and weight gain 1.75, 20.84 and 15.92. The total antioxidant capacity of serum increased in sorghum and mixed sorghum/quinoa flour groups, probably due to the higher amount of phenolic compounds. There was no change in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and the biomarker malondialdehyde. Thus, the mixed flour of sorghum/quinoa is an excellent alternative for the elaboration of products with better protein quality and high antioxidant capacity.

Morphological characterization of whey protein concentrate admixture of microencapsulated curcumin by spray drying.

Jaqueline Vieira Piovezana Gomes, Lívya Alves de Oliveira, Júlia d’Almeida Francisquini, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Rodrigo Stephani, Luiz Fernando C. de Oliveira,  Ítalo T. Perrone, Antônio F. de Carvalho, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, v. 2020, p.1-10
Impact factor: 1.405

Abstract: Spray drying was used to develop two products: whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein concentrate admixture of microencapsulated curcumin (TWPC). We aimed to characterize the concentrate’s technological attributes to verify whether lactose remains in an amorphous state even after the addition of turmeric extract containing curcumin, a compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Analysis of morphology, particle size distribution, Raman spectroscopy, sorption isotherms and colorimetry were carried out. WPC and TWPC showed spherical, irregular, particulate morphology with agglomeration points, without apparent cracks. Differences in the L*, a*, b* values between WPC and TWPC showed that the addition of curcumin extract, which is a natural orange-yellow dye, has led to a tendency toward yellow coloration. The sorption isotherms indicated no difference in its curved shape. The presence of turmeric extract in TWPC sample modified WPC Raman spectrum. Thus, it was possible to develop TWPC without altering WPC technological characteristics.

Multilevel analysis of factors that influence overweight in children: research in schools enrolled in northern Brazil School Health Program.

Renata Andrade de Medeiros Moreira, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Glauce Dias da Costa, Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
BMC Pediatric, v. 20, p. 188-204.
Impact factor: 1.983

Abstract: Background: The study evaluates children in schools that participate in the School Health Program in the Northern region of Brazil with the objective of assessing whether their schools interfered in the development of overweight/obesity and how individual and school environment variables behave according to contextual analysis. Methods: The analyses were carried out with 1036 children from 25 municipal public schools in Northern Brazil that participated in the School Health Program. We evaluated both individual characteristics and scholar environment through univariate and multivariate logistic regressions to identify which of these factors were related to overweight/obesity as well as the effect of varying such associations. Results: The considered individuals had an median age of 8 years, being 54.9% female and 27.8% presenting overweight/obesity. In multivariate logistic regression, the overweight/obesity variance in schools was 0.386 (individual variables) and 0.102 (individual and school variables), explaining 23.7% of the variation, reduction of ICC and MOR. The Akaike Information Criterion between the models was reduced and the likelihood ratio indicated better adequacy of the latter model. The investigated children had a greater chance of developing overweight/obesity when they performed 2+ sedentary activities/day, depending on school location as well as whether or not candies were sold in the school surroundings. On the other hand, a lower chance of developing overweight/obesity was identified in children that ate 5+ meals/day and practiced dance at school. Conclusion: We observed that the variables inherent to both individuals and schools favored the development of overweight/obesity in children. It is relevant that scholar curriculums incorporate healthy eating interventions and encourage body practices associated with policies that restrain the sale of ultra-processed food in schools as well as the development of intersectoral actions between education and health to control childhood obesity.

Nutrition Risk Assessed by STRONGkids Predicts Longer Hospital Stay in a Pediatric Cohort: A Survival Analysis.

Carolina Araújo dos Santos, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Heloísa Helena Firmino, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Nutrition in Clinical Practice, v. 2020. P. 1-8
Impact factor: 2.587

Abstract:’Background:We evaluated the impact of Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) classification in time to discharge and verify whether the nutrition risk assessed by this method is an independent predictor of hospital length of stay (LOS) in pediatric inpatients. Methods: A cohort study was conducted in a Brazilian hospital from February 2014 to July 2018. The outcome in the survivor analysis was hospital discharge. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the cumulative survival time according to STRONGkids categories. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were fitted, and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), with respective 95% CI, was used to measure the strength of association. The discriminatory ability of STRONGkids was verified by a receiver operating characteristic curve Results: A total 641 patients were included in the study: 54.9% males, median age of 2.8 years. The frequencies of low, moderate, and high nutrition risk were 15.6%, 63.7%, and 20.7%, respectively. The mean LOS was 5.9 days. Survival curves differed significantly according to nutrition-risk categories. Patients classified as high risk had a 52% less chance of hospital discharge when compared with low-risk patients (aHR: 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35–0.65). STRONGkids score ≥ 3 showed the best discriminatory power to identify LOS. From this score, there was a significant increase in the days of hospitalization. Conclusion: The nutrition risk assessed by STRONGkids independently predicts LOS in pediatric patients. For this outcome, patients with 3 points (moderate risk) should be treated with the same priority as those with high risk.

Nutritional status coverage trend registered in the SISVAN web in seven municipalities of the Zona Da Mata Mineira, Brazil, from 2008 to 2017, and its association with socio-economic, demographic and organisation of health system variables.

Irene da Silva Araújo da Silva Gonçalves, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta, Glauce Dias da Costa
Journal of Nutritional Science, v. 9, p.1-8
Impact factor: 1.198

Abstract: We analysed the coverage trend of the evaluation of the nutritional status of users of public health services registered in the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) between 2008 and 2017 in seven municipalities and verified the association of the coverage trend with the socio-economic, demographic and organisational aspects of health system variables. It is an ecological time-series study performed with secondary data extracted from health information systems. Descriptive statistics, linear regression model and repeated measures analysis were performed. The coverage of evaluation of nutritional status was low over the period. Five municipalities showed a tendency to increase coverage, although small, while two remained stable. The highest annual variation in coverage increase was concentrated in the group of pregnant women and the lowest in adolescents and older adults. There was a downward trend in follow-ups from the Bolsa Family Programme and a trend towards increased follow-ups from SUS Primary Care (e-SUS AB). SISVAN coverage was positively associated with the proportion of rural population (P ≤ 0·001) and coverage of community health agents (P < 0·001); and negatively associated with total population (P < 0·001), demographic density (P = 0·006) and gross domestic product per capita (P = 0·008). Despite the tendency to increase coverage in some municipalities, SISVAN still presents low coverage of nutritional status assessment, which compromises population monitoring. Knowing the factors that influence the coverage can subsidise the elaboration of strategies for its expansion

Personalized Nutrition Using PROCARDIO to Reduce Cardiometabolic Risk in the Academic Community: A Study Protocol with Preliminary Results.

Alinne Paula de Almeida, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Ana Vládia Bandeira Moreira, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, v. 2020, p. 1-10
Impact factor: 2.080

Abstract: Background: Strategies of promotion, prevention and health care of individuals with cardiometabolic risk are necessary to control cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To describe a study design and present partial results of nutritional counseling in the Cardiovascular Health Care Program (PROCARDIO). Methods: PROCARDIO is a nutritional intervention program for students and workers or dependents of the Brazilian university academic community who are at risk of or have a cardiovascular disease (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials n RBR-5n4y2g). Patients are submitted to nutritional clinical assessments involving anthropometry, biochemical analysis, sociodemographic and clinical, lifestyle and dietary data. Patients are provided with nutritional counseling, dietetic workshops and educational materials. In addition, nutritional following-ups are performed monthly. Results: The sample consisted of 296 patients (171 F/125 M, 27-56 years). The prevalence of individuals with excess body weight, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension in the sample were 74.7% (n¼222), 79.1% (n¼235), 18.2% (n¼54) and 25.3% (n¼75), respectively. After three months of nutritional counseling, PROCARDIO users had decreased body fat, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and LDL-C (p<0.05). Specifically, patients with diabetes exhibited reduced glycated hemoglobin concentrations (p<0.05); those with dyslipidemia showed a reduction in total cholesterol, LDL-C and LDL/HDL (p<0.05) concentrations; and those with excess body weight reduced waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat, uric acid and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios (p<0.05). Conclusion: PROCARDIO patients concluded with a clinical-metabolic improvement regardless of chronic diseases after receiving nutritional counseling, thus highlighting the importance of individual actions and strategies to be based on personalized nutrition for achieving proposed therapeutic targets.

Preclinical and clinical relevance of probiotics and synbiotics in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review.

Bruna Cristina dos Santos Cruz, Mariaurea Matias Sarandy Souza, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Celia Lucia de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Nutrition Reviews, v. 77, p. 1-12
Impact factor: 5.779

Abstract: Context: Recent evidence suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may help prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the role of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention of colorectal cancer and to clarify potential mechanisms involved. Data sources: The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and LILACS databases were searched for studies conducted in humans or animal models and published up to August 15, 2018. Study selection: Clinical trials and placebo-controlled experimental studies that evaluated the effects of probiotics and synbiotics in colorectal cancer and cancer associated with inflammatory bowel disease were included. Of 247 articles identified, 31 remained after exclusion criteria were applied. A search of reference lists identified 5 additional studies, for a total of 36 included studies. Data extraction: Two authors independently assessed risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Data were pooled by type of study, ie, preclinical or clinical. Results: The results showed positive effects of probiotics and synbiotics in preventing colorectal cancer. The main mechanisms identified were alterations in the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota; reduction of inflammation; induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth; modulation of immune responses and cell proliferation; enhanced function of the intestinal barrier; production of compounds with anticarcinogenic activity; and modulation of oxidative stress. Conclusions: Probiotics or synbiotics may help prevent colorectal cancer, but additional studies in humans are required to better inform clinical practice.

Preclinical Evidence of Probiotics in Colorectal Carcinogenesis: A Systematic Review.

Poliana Guiomar de Almeida Brasiel, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Romulo Dias Novaes, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves
Digestive Diseases and Sciences, v.2020, p. 1-14
H index 119

Abstract: Background: Colorectal cancer, the second major cause of cancer deaths, imposes a major health burden worldwide. There is growing evidence that supports that the use of probiotics is effective against various diseases, especially in gastrointestinal diseases, including the colorectal cancer, but the differences between the strains, dose, and frequency used are not yet clear. Aims: To perform a systematic review to compile the results of studies carried out in animal models and investigated the effect of probiotics on colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Studies were selected in PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Search filters were developed using three parameters: probiotics, colorectal cancer, and animal model. Results: From a structured search, we discovered 34 original articles and submitted them to a risk of bias analysis using SYRCLE’s tool. The studies show a great diversity of models, most were conducted in rats (55.8%) and used 1,2 dimethylhydrazine as the drug to induce colorectal carcinogenesis (61.7%). The vast majority of trials investigated Lactobacillus (64%) and Bifidobacterium (29.4%) strains. Twenty-six (86.6%) studies found significant reduction in lesions or tumors in the animals that received probiotics. The main methodological limitation was the insufficient amount of information for the adequate reproducibility of the trials, which indicated a high risk of bias due to incomplete characterization of the experimental design. Conclusions: The different probiotics’ strains showed anti-carcinogenic effect, reduced the development of lesions and intestinal tumors, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity, and reduced fecal bacterial enzymes.

Predictive Ability of Seven Anthropometric Indices for Cardiovascular Risk Markers and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents.

Kellen Cristine Silva, Natalia Santana Paiva, Franciane Rocha de Faria, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Silvia Eloiza Priore
Journal of Adolescent Health, v.66, p. 491-498
Impact factor: 3.952

Abstract: Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of 7 anthropometric indices in predicting cardiovascular risk markers (CRMs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted with 1,069 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents Study aged 12e17 years. Receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted, and area under curve (AUC) was calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR), conicity index (CoI), body shape index (BSI), adjusted BSI for adolescents (adjusted BSI), and body roundness index (BRI). Results: In girls, reliability of BMI, WC, WHR, and BRI was sufficient (.6 AUC <.7) only to predict high blood pressure. Among boys, reliability of BMI, WC, WHR, BRI, and adjusted BSI ranged from good to sufficient (6 AUC <.8) to predict insulin resistance and high blood pressure, but poor to sufficient (.5 AUC <.7) for high total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein. For both sexes, CoI and BSI presented AUC .5 for all CRM. A majority of the anthropometric indices showed AUC .9 for MetS. Conclusion: Reliability of CoI, BSI, adjusted BSI, and BRI is not superior to BMI, WC, and WHR in predicting CRM and MetS. All the anthropometric indices had excellent predictive capacity for MetS, but limited accuracy for CRM. Among the evaluated indices, we recommend the use of cutoff point WHR .55 to screening MetS in girls and boys because of its easy to measure and interpretation.

Predictive capacity of triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index for insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

Alice Divina Melo de Brito, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Lara Gomes Suhett, Sarah Aparecida Vieira-Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Critical Review Food Science and Nutrition, 2020, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 6.402

Abstract: Insulin resistance (IR) in childhood plays a key role in the development of metabolic changes in adulthood, therefore, it is important to diagnose it early. We aimed to investigate studies that evaluated the TyG index for prediction of IR risk and other cardiometabolic risk factors, as well as, the proposed cutoff points in childhood and adolescence. This is a systematic review elaborated according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). The search was performed in Lilacs, PubMed and CAPES Journal Portal, using the terms “TyG index OR triglyceride-glucose index OR triglyceride and glucose index AND
children OR adolescent”. Eight articles were included in this review. All were cross-sectional studies with individuals aged 2 and 20 years old, from the United States, Korea, Mexico, Brazil, and Iran. We concluded that the TyG index was positively associated with other IR prediction methods and appears to be advantageous for predicting IR risk and other cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents (review registration: PROSPERO CRD42018100726).

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Brazilians with arterial hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus.

Autores: Luma de Oliveira Comini, Laura Cardoso de Oliveira, Luiza Delazari Borges, Heloisa Helena Dias, Emily de Souza Ferreira, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Glauce Dias da Costa, Rodrigo Gomes da Silva, Rosangela Minardi Mitre Cotta
The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, v. 2020, p. 1-8.

Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) accompanied by Primary Health Care (PHC) in Brazil. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on creatinine, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured in 841 subjects with AH and/or DM, followed by PHC in the city of Viçosa. The CKD was diagnosed according to KDIGO criteria. Sociodemographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors related to the prevalence of CKD were investigated through multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of hidden CKD was 15.4%. Of these, 7.5% were identified by a lbuminuria (ACR ≥30 mg/g) with slightly decreased eGFR. Age, baseline disease, waist circumference (WC), and systolic blood pressure remained associated with CKD after multivariate analysis. The two major risk factors for hidden CKD were the presence of AH in association with DM and an increase in age. Hidden CKD was more common within people with AH and DM, and with high WC, glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum phosphorus as well as male gender and decreased serum albumin. This knowledge of risk associations can help avoid progression to CKD.

Pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a high number of cardiovascular events and ultra-processed foods consumption in patients in secondary care.

Alessandra da Silva, Matheus Brum Felício, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Ângela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira, Camila Ragne Torreglosa, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Bernardete Weber, Josefina Bressan
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2020, 0.1-10.
Impact factor: 2.526

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association of dietary inflammatory index (DII®) with the occurrence of cardiovascular events, cardiometabolic risk factors and with the
consumption of processed, ultra-processed, unprocessed or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients. Design: This was a cross-sectional study that analysed the baseline data from 2359 cardiac patients. Data on socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical and food consumption were collected. Energy-adjusted food intake data were used to calculate DII, and the foods were classified according to the NOVA classification.
Furthermore, the patients were grouped according to the number (1, 2 or ≥ 3) of manifested cardiovascular events. The data were analysed using linear and multinomial
logistic regression. Settings: Multicentre study from Brazil. Participants: Patients with established cardiovascular events from the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program Trial evaluated at baseline. Results: Most of the patients were male (58·8 %), older adults (64·2 %) and were overweight (68·8 %). Patients in the third tertile of DII (DII > 0·91) had were more likely to have 2 (OR 1·27, 95 % CI: 1·01–1·61) and ≥ 3 (OR 1·39, 95 % CI: 1·07–1·79) cardiovascular events, with poor cardiometabolic profile. They also were more likely to consume a higher percentage of processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients foods consumption compared with the patients in the first DII tertile (DII ≤ 0·91). Conclusion: A more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a greater chance of having 2 and ≥ 3 cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors and were more likely to consume processed, ultra-processed and culinary ingredients compared to those with a more anti-inflammatory diet.

Prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in Brazilian children under 5 years of age: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Victor N. C., Carolina Abreu de Carvalho, Poliana Cristina de  Almeida Fonseca, Elma Izzi da Silva Magalhães, Luana L. Padilha, Sueli I. O. Conceição, Maria Tereza B. A. Frota, Isabela L. Calado, Nayra A. C. Cantanhede, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Ana Karina T. C. França
British Journal of Nutrition. 2020, p 1-13.
Impact factor: 3.319

Abstract: Fe-deficiency anaemia is considered an important public health problem both in wealthier countries and in those of medium and low income, especially in children under 5 years of age. The shortage of studies with national representativity in medium-income countries, such as Brazil, prevents the knowledge of the current situation and its associated factors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence of Fe-deficiency anaemia in Brazilian children under 5 years of age and determined the factors involved in the variability of the estimates of prevalence. We collected fifty-seven studies from the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and Web of Science, along with the reference lists of included articles. We contacted authors for unpublished data. We did not restrict publication timespan and language. This systematic review and meta-analysis was reported according to the guidelines by PRISMA. The pooled prevalence of anaemia in Brazil was 40·2 (95 % CI 36·0, 44·8) %. The age range of the child and the period of data collection were associated with the anaemia prevalence. The pooled prevalence of anaemia was higher in children under 24 months of age (53·5 v. 30·7 %; P < 0·001) and in studies with data collected before 2004 (51·8 v. 32·6 %; P = 0·001). The efforts made by the Brazilian government were successful in the reduction of anaemia in children under 5 years of age in Brazil in the evaluated period. However, prevalence remains beyond acceptable levels for this population group

Processed and ultra-processed food consumption are related to metabolic markers in hemodialysis subjects

Aline Lage Wendling, Karla Pereira Balbino, Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Andreza de Paula Santos Epifânio, Luciene Domingos Marota, Helen Hermana Miranda Hemrsdorff
Revista de Nutrição, v. 33, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 0.484

Abstract: Objective To investigate the consumption of processed and ultra-processed foods and evaluate its relationship with the nutritional and metabolic status of  hemodialysis patients in a single center in Brazil. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 73 individuals in hemodialysis (50 men and 23 women, 21-87 years-old). Clinical and lifestyle variables were assessed by a semi-structured questionnaire and dietary data by food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric and metabolic data are collected from medical records. Results Processed and ultra-processed foods represented 11.0% of daily caloric intake, 53.0% of trans fatty acid, and 12.5% of salt consumed in the study sample. Individuals who had high intake of this food group (≥128.4g/day, median intake) had higher serum phosphorus and pre-dialysis urea values (p=0.038; p=0.013, respectively). Also, individual with higher consumption of processed meat, sausages and ready prepared food had higher pre-dialysis serum urea (p=0.021), while serum potassium was higher among the subjects who consumed more sauces and salt-based seasonings (p=0.002). Conclusion Higher consumption of processed and ultra-processed foods was associated with important biomarkers of metabolic control for hemodialysis subjects, probably due to non-health dietary composition. Nutritional guidelines and intervention strategies must be promoted to reduce consumption of these food-group in this specific population.

Relationship between Phase Angle and Objective and Subjective Indicators of Nutritional Status in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review.  

Carolina de Almeida, Paula Moreira Penna, Solange Silveira Pereira, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini
Nutrition and Cancer, v. 2020, p.1-10.
Impact factor: 2.029

Abstract: To investigate the relationship between phase angle (PA) and objective and subjective indicators of nutritional status in cancer patients, as well as to identify cutoff points for PA, to detect malnutrition in these patients. The study was a systematic review, carried out following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Literature search was performed for two authors, in indexed databases, including the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), and Scopus (Elsevier). We used the checklist from the Joanna Briggs Institute for assessing the risk of bias. The review was registered with the Systematic Review Registration (PROSPERO), number CRD42020134324. In total, nine papers were eligible. PA was correlated with several objective and subjective indicators of nutritional status in most cases. Cutoff point values for the PA, capable of detecting malnutrition, varied from 4.73° to 6°, despite the modest diagnostic accuracy. We assume that PA may be considered an indicator of nutritional status, when complementing additional data and assisting health practitioners in evaluating individuals with malignant neoplasms. However, a single cutoff point with fair and concomitant sensitivity and specificity was not identified.

Reply to letter to the editor: “Advanced glycation end‐products and their receptors: Exercise effects”.

Juliana Ferreira Tavares, Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Olivia Gonçalves Leão Coelho, Laís Emilia da Silva, Rita de Cassia Gonçalves Alfenas
Obesity Reviews, v.21, p. 1-3
Impact factor: 8.192

No abstract

SARS-COV-2 pandemic: the food insecurity and social inequalities in Brazil

Camila Carla da Silva Caetano, Lívya Alves Oliveira, Ana Teixeira Nogueira, Lindomar José Pena, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia
RACA, v.2, p. 183-195
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the most severe global public health crisis in the last century. SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China in December 2019, and since then, it has been quickly spreading around the world. After Europe and North America, the virus has arrived in Latin America. Among the developing countries, Brazil has been the most affected by the pandemic causalities, which is a concern, since social and economic disparities may favor its severity. In an attempt to reduce virus transmission, public health measures have been implemented by the states, despite the lack of assistance from the Brazilian federal government. Implementing social distancing and hygiene measures have not been possible, mainly due to the unfavorable social conditions of economically vulnerable people. Thus, the pandemic is exposing the evidence of social inequalities in the country, which in turn deepens the public health crisis. Here, we discuss evidence from relevant topics that are influencing the course of the pandemic in Brazil, including food insecurity, social aspects and public health political issues. The pandemic has exposed the need for maintaining and improving the social care and food security of vulnerable groups as well as the harm of ignoring them. Thus, more effective mitigation measures must be thought and applied in Brazil to improve the handling of this pandemic and the next ones.

Skeletal mass indices are inversely associated with metabolically unhealthy phenotype in overweight/obese and normal weight men: a population-based cross-sectional study.

Cristiane Junqueira de Carvalho, Giana Zarbato Longo, Adriana Maria Kakehasi, Patrícia Feliciano Pereira, Kátia Josiany Segheto, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
British Journal of Nutrition, v. 124, p.1-24.
Impact factor: 3.319

Abstract: Muscle mass may play an important role in the metabolic profile of individuals with or without excess weight. Metabolic phenotypes classify individuals as healthy or unhealthy based on certain metabolic conditions. We investigated the association between skeletal mass indices (SMI) and the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in normal weight and overweight/obese adults. Six hundred and sixty adults aged 20 to 59 years were assessed by a population-based cross-sectional study. Muscle mass of the limbs or appendicular lean mass (ALM) adjusted for weight (SMIweight) and BMI (SMIBMI) was used to evaluate SMI. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the association between SMIweight, SMIBMI, and metabolic phenotypes of normal weight and overweight/obese individuals. Metabolically unhealthy individuals were older in both genders . Metabolically unhealthy men had lower SMI values and higher fat percentage than metabolically healthy men. SMIweight was inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype, both in normal weight men (OR, 0.49, 95% CI 0.24–0.99, P = 0.04) and in overweight/obese men (OR, 0.32, 95% CI 0.16–0.64, P = 0.001). SMIBMI was inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in overweight/obese men (OR, 0.36, 95% CI 0.18–0.72, P = 0.004), but not in normal weight range (OR, 0.70, 95% CI 0.34–1.43, P = 0.33). Among women, SMI showed no significant association with the phenotypes. In conclusion, the SMI are inversely associated with the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in men, especially among overweight/obese men.

Socioeconomic Disparities in the Community Food Environment of a Medium-Sized City of Brazil.

Luciene Fátima Fernandes Almeida, Taine Gonçalves Novaes, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Larissa Loures Mendes, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, v. 19, p.1-11
Impact factor: 2.080

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this ecological study was to characterize the community food environment according to the socioeconomic condition of census tracts (CTs) in the urban area of a medium-sized city of southeastern Brazil in 2016. Method: Food establishments were identified on the streets covered by raters and information about type was collected through objective assessment. Geocoding was carried out from address observed by raters. Food establishments were categorized into establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, mixed establishments, and establishments with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. The distribution of the number of establishments, by category, was evaluated according to tertiles of per capita income of the CT. The kernel estimation was used to analyze the density of establishments by category. The spatial pattern of the categories of establishments was investigated using the univariate Ripley’s K-function. Results: A total of 656 establishments were evaluated. In all, 11.1% had predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, 44.5% were mixed, and 44.4% had predominant sale of ultra-processed foods. The average of establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods, of ultra-processed foods, and all categories increased according to the income of the CT. There was a clustering of all categories of establishments in high-income CTs downtown. However, peripheral and low-income CTs were composed of a higher number of mixed establishments or those with predominant sale of ultra-processed foods than establishments with predominant sale of natural or minimally processed foods. Conclusions: On average, the number of all categories of establishments increased according to the per capita income of the CT and were clustered in central and higher-income regions of the city. These findings may have practical implications for the development of public policies to increase the availability of healthy foods and to reduce the sale of unhealthy foods.

Stability of B vitamins, vitamin E, xanthophylls and flavonoids during germination and maceration of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

Soraia Silva Pinheiro, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Leandro de Morais Cardoso, Ceres Mattos Della Lucia, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Valéria Aparecida Vieira Queiroz, Helena Maria Pinheiro Sant’Ana
Food Chemistry, v. 2020.
Impact factor: 5.399

Abstract: The impact of maceration and germination on the concentration of bioactive compounds still needs to be evaluated. The stability of B complex vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine), vitamin E (α, β, γ, δ tocopherols and tocotrienols), xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and flavonoids (3-deoxyanthocyanidins-3-DXAs, flavones and flavanones) was evaluated in sorghum grains subjected to maceration and germination, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Maceration and germination reduced thiamine and pyridoxine concentrations (retentions ranging from 3.8 to 50.2%). Riboflavin and Vitamin E concentrations were not affected by maceration. Germination increased riboflavin and reduced vitamin E. 3-DXAs were sensitive to maceration and germination (retentions of 69.6% and 69.9%, respectively). Flavones contents decreased with germination. Our results indicate that, after germination and/or maceration, sorghum had important nutritional and functional value. Thus, its intake, mainly in macerated forms, should be encouraged, since concentrations of riboflavin, vitamin E and flavones were not altered during this processing.

StrongKids for Pediatric Nutritional Risk Screening in Brazil: A Validation Study.

Carolina Araújo dos Santos, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Izabella Bianca Magalhães Costa, Heloísa Helena Firmino, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, v.2020, p.1-7
Impact factor: 3.114

Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of StrongKids as a pediatric nutritional screening tool in Brazil, which has no validated method for this purpose. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 641 patients admitted to the pediatric care unit of a public hospital from 2014 to 2018. The concurrent validity was assessed by evaluating the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of StrongKids in detecting acute, chronic, and overall malnutrition. Predictive validity was determined by calculating the same indices to identify longer than median hospital stay, need of enteral nutrition, 30-day hospital readmission, transfer to hospitals with more complex procedures, and death. StrongKids was reapplied to a subsample to evaluate the inter-rater reproducibility. Results Prevalence of low risk was 15.6%, moderate risk was 63.7%, and high nutritional risk was 20.7%. A positive test, corresponding to the moderate or high risk category, identified all those with acute malnutrition and showed sensitivity of 89.4% (95% CI: 76.9–96.4) and 94.0% (95% CI: 86.6–98.0) for the detection of chronic and overall malnutrition, respectively. Regarding its predictive capacity, 100% of the patients who needed enteral nutrition, who were transferred, died, or were readmitted to hospital within 30 days after discharge were considered in risk by StrongKids, and the sensitivity
to identify those with prolonged hospital stays was 89.2 (95% CI: 84.6–92.7). The inter-rater agreement was excellent (PABAK: 0.87). Conclusions StrongKids had satisfactory validity and reproducibility and successfully identified nutritional deficits and predict unfavorable health outcomes. Our results support the use of StrongKids as a pediatric nutritional risk screening method in Brazil.

Survival and analysis of predictors of mortality in patients undergoing replacement renal therapy: a 20-year cohort.

Emily de Souza Ferreira, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Rodrigo Gomes da Silva, Glauce Dias da Costa, Luciana Saraiva da Silva, Samantha Bicalho de Oliveira Cavalier, Beatriz Oliveira Silva, Heloísa Helena Dias, Luiza Delazari Borges, Juliana Costa Machado, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
BMC Nephrology, v. 21, p. 1-14.
Impact factor: 2.088

Abstract: Background: optimal management of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients should be more studied because it is a serious risk factor for mortality, being considered an unquestionable global priority. Methods: we performed a retrospective cohort study from the Nephrology Service in Brazil evaluating the survival
of patients with ESRD in HD during 20 years. Kaplan-Meier method with the Log-Rank and Cox’s proportional hazards model explored the association between survival time and demographic factors, quality of treatment and laboratory values. Results: Data from 422 patients were included. The mean survival time was 6.79 ± 0.37. The overall survival rates at first year was 82,3%. The survival time correlated significantly with clinical prognostic factors. Prognostic analyses with the Cox proportional hazards regression model and Kaplan-Meier survival curves further identified that leukocyte count (HR = 2.665, 95% CI: 1.39–5.12), serum iron (HR = 8.396, 95% CI: 2.02–34.96), serum calcium (HR = 4.102, 95% CI: 1.35–12.46) and serum protein (HR = 4.630, 95% CI: 2.07–10.34) as an independent risk factor for the prognosis of survival time, while patients with chronic obstructive pyelonephritis (HR = 0.085, 95% CI: 0.01–0.74), high ferritin values (HR = 0.392, 95% CI: 0.19–0.80), serum phosphorus (HR = 0.290, 95% CI: 0.19–0.61) and serum albumin (HR = 0.230, 95% CI: 0.10–0.54) were less risk to die. Conclusion: survival remains low in the early years of ESRD treatment. The present study identified that elevated values of ferritin, serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, leukocyte, serum protein and serum iron values as a useful prognostic factor for the survival time.

Synbiotic VSL#3 and yacon-based product modulate the intestinal microbiota and prevent the development of pre-neoplastic lesions in a colorectal carcinogenesis model.

Bruna Cristina dos Santos Cruz, Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula, Lilian da Silva Fialho, Valéria Monteze Guimarães, Célia Lúcia de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, v.104, p. 8837-8857.
Impact factor: 3.455

Abstract: Colorectal cancer is a public health problem, with dysbiosis being one of the risk factors due to its role in intestinal inflammation. Probiotics and synbiotics have been used in order to restore the microbiota balance and to prevent colorectal carcinogenesis. We aimed to investigate the effects of the probiotic VSL#3® alone or in combination with a yacon-based prebiotic concentrate on the microbiota modulation and its influence on colorectal carcinogenesis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: control (control diet), probiotic (control diet + VSL#3®), and synbiotic (yacon diet + VSL#3®). The diets were provided for 13 weeks and, from the third one, all animals were subjected to induction of colorectal cancer precursor lesions. Stool samples were collected to evaluate organic acids, feces pH, β-glucuronidase activity, and microbiota composition. The colon was used to count pre-neoplastic lesions and to determine the cytokines. The microbiota composition was influenced by the use of probiotic and synbiotic. Modifications were also observed in the abundance of bacterial genera with respect to the control group, which confirms the interference of carcinogenesis in the microbiota. Pre-neoplastic lesions were reduced by the use of the synbiotic, but not with the probiotic. The protection provided by the synbiotic can be attributed to the modulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, to the inhibition of a pro-carcinogenic enzyme, and to the production of organic acids. The modulation of the composition and activity of the microbiota contributed to beneficial changes in the intestinal microenvironment, which led to a reduction in carcinogenesis. KEY POINTS: • Synbiotic reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer precursor lesions. • Synbiotic modulates the composition and activity of intestinal microbiota. • Synbiotic increases the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria.

TAG–glucose (TyG) index in childhood: an estimate of cut-off points and the relation to cardiometabolic risk in 4- to 9-year-old children.

Alice Divina Melo de Brito, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Sarah Aparecida Vieira-Ribeiro, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Public Health Nutrition, v. 2020, p. 1-8
Impact factor: 2.526

Abstract: Objective: To propose cut-off points for the TAG–glucose (TyG) index in Brazilian children and evaluate the link to cardiometabolic risk. Design: A cross-sectional study with children from a municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anthropometric (weight, height, waist circumference and waist:height ratio), biochemical (lipid and glucose profile) and blood pressure (BP) tests were performed. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, cut-off points for the TyG index were proposed according to sex using homoeostasis model of assessment – insulin resistance (IR) as the reference method. Setting: Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Participants: Children aged 4–9 years (n 515). Results: The TyG index cut-off points to identify the risk of IR were 7·9 and 8·1 for boys and girls, respectively. We observed that 48·7 % of the children had an increased TyG index. The increased TyG index was associated with overweight, total body and central fat, increased BP and altered lipid profile. Children with an increased TyG index had a higher accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions: According to the cut-off points proposed by the current study, children at risk of IR estimated by the TyG index presented a higher cardiometabolic risk, including isolated risk factors, as to the higher accumulation of these.

The fatty acid profile of adipose tissue as a predictor of the ponderal and inflammatory response in adult women six years after bariatric surgery.

Crislaine das Graças de Almeida, Elaine Cristina Viana, Ana Vládia Bandeira Moreira, Raquel Duarte Moreira Alves, Josefina Bressan
Lipids in Health and Disease v. 19, p. 1-11
Impact factor: 2.651

Abstract: Background: Adipose tissue is involved in several metabolic changes. This study investigated the association between the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue pre-surgery and the postsurgical response regarding the evolution of weight and concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in adult women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 14) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG, n = 19) at one (T1), three (T3) and six (T6) years after surgery. Methods: Blood samples were collected to obtain plasma for the measurement of IL-6 and TNF. Anthropometric measurements were performed, collecting samples of VAT and SAT during surgery to assess the FA profiles. Results: Weight loss had a positive correlation with the percentage of VAT-C17:0 (T1, T3) and SAT-C18:2 (T1, T3, T6), and it had a negative correlation with SAT-C22:0 (T1, T3) and VAT-C22:0 (T3). Regarding the inflammatory response, SAT-C14:0 (T6), VAT-C14:0 (T6), SAT-C14:1 (baseline), SAT-C15:0 (T6), SAT-C16:1 (T6), VAT-C16:1 (baseline), SAT-C17:1 (T6), VAT-C17:1 (baseline), VAT-C18:1 (T6), and VAT-C20:1 (T6) exhibited positive correlations with the concentration of IL-6, which were different from the correlations of IL-6 concentrations with SAT-C18:2, VAT-C18:2 (T6), and VAT-C18:3 (T6). The FA SAT-C18:0 (T1) was negatively correlated with TNF concentrations. Conclusions: Saturated FAs were predominantly proinflammatory, primarily in the late postoperative period. Alternately, the polyunsaturated FAs exhibited anti-inflammatory potential and predicted weight loss. Thus, the FA profile of the adipose tissue of obese adult women may be a predictor of the ponderal and inflammatory response 6 years after bariatric surgery.

The mediating role of visceral adiposity in the relationship among schooling, physical inactivity, and unhealthy metabolic phenotype.

Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanho, Giana Zarbato Longo
American Journal of Human Biology, v.2020, p. 1-12
Impact factor: 1.438

Abstract: Objective: To explore the mediating role of visceral adiposity, as assessed by
the visceral adiposity index (VAI), in the relationship among schooling, physical inactivity, and unhealthy metabolic phenotype (UMP). Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 854 adult individuals of both sexes from a Brazilian city. Data were collected through interviews, anthropometric evaluation, and clinical and laboratorial tests. We used multivariate path analysis, which simultaneously analyzes multiple relationships between variables. The analyses were adjusted by sex and age and stratified according to nutritional status. Results: A positive direct effect of visceral adiposity on the UMP was observed for normal weight, standardized estimate (SE) = 0.632; confidence interval (CI 95%) = 0.547, 0.707) and overweight individuals (SE = 0.732; CI 95% = 0.647, 0.808), and negative direct effect of schooling on physical inactivity (normal weight: SE = −0.408; CI 95% = −0.550, −0.265) and overweight (SE = −0.304; CI 95% = −0.479, −0.129). Among normal-weight individuals, there was a positive direct effect (SE = 0.193; CI 95% = 0.059, 0.328) of physical inactivity on VAI. In relation to indirect effects, there was a mediating role of visceral adiposity in the association of schooling level and physical inactivity with the UMP only among normal-weight individuals. Conclusions: Visceral adiposity has a direct effect on the UMP regardless of nutritional status, and there is a mediating effect of VAI on the relationship among schooling, physical inactivity, and UMP in normal-weight individuals.

The Preoperative Dietary Inflammatory Index Predicts Changes in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors After 12 Months of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

Sônia Lopes Pinto, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Alessandra da Silva, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Josefina Bressan
Obesity Surgery, v.30, p. 1-8
Impact factor: 3.603

Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to evaluate Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) in the preoperative period as well as 3 and 12 months post-surgery and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors after RYGB. Materials and Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 50 patients (both sexes) who underwent RYGB. All data were collected in 3 phases: before surgery, 3, and 12 months post-surgery. To calculate DII scores, we utilized mean nutrients from three 24-h recalls at each time point. Results The patients had median age of 39.1 ± 7.9 years (70% women). Mean preoperative DII® score of 0.39 ± 1.49 was slightly pro-inflammatory. Mean DII score reduced to − 1.52 ± 1.27 after 3 months post-surgery and was classified anti-inflammatory. This value rebounded to − 0.88 ± 1.49 at 12 months but was still anti-inflammatory. From the adjusted linear regression analysis, we observed that preoperative DII score was statistically associated with variations in neck circumference (β = − 0.50; p = 0.03), waist-hip ratio (β = 0.01; p = 0.02), total cholesterol (β = 6.47; p = 0.002), and LDL cholesterol (β = 6.42; p = 0.001) after 12 months post-surgery. Changes in DII® at 3 and 12 months were not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusion We observe significant changes in the inflammation potential of diet after 3 and 12 months of RYGB. Patients with higher preoperative E-DII scores have a greater metabolic improvement after 12 months of surgery.

Triglyceride-glucose index predicts independently type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Alessandra da Silva, Ana Paula Silva Caldas, Daniela Mayumi Usuda Prado Rocha, Josefina Bressan
Primary Care Diabetes, v. 2020, p.1-8.
Impact factor: 2.842

Abstract: Objective: Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies evaluating the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index as a tool for type 2 diabetes (T2D) prediction in adults and older adults. Methods: Studies were identified in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Lilacs. Studies with cohort design, which evaluated the T2D incidence through the hazard ratio (HR) or relative risk (RR) or odds ratio values were included. Were included both studies that evaluated the incidence of T2D from tertiles, quartiles, quintiles, or single TyG index values. First, a meta-analysis only for studies that reported data in HR values was performed. Additionally, given the different association measurements used, the number of T2D cases, non-T2D cases, and the total number of participants were extracted from exposed and non-exposed groups when available. Then the risk ratio was calculated. A meta-analysis using the inverse variance method and the random-effects model was performed. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2 statistics and by inspecting funnel plots. Results: Thirteen cohort studies with a total of 70,380 subjects, both sexes, adults, and older adults were included in the meta-analysis. Ten studies showed a significant association of the TyG index with T2D risk through HR estimative (overall HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 2.17–2.76). After estimating RR for nine studies, we also observed a significant association of the TyG index with T2D risk (RR: 3.12, 95 CI: 2.31–4.21). For all analyses, high heterogeneity was verified by I2 and visual inspection of funnel plots. Conclusions: TyG index has a positive and significant association with T2D risk, suggesting that the TyG index may become an applicable tool to identify subjects with T2D risk. However, due to the high heterogeneity observed in overall HR and RR analysis, more studies could be necessary to confirm these results.

Use of the synbiotic VSL#3 and yacon-based concentrate attenuates intestinal damage and reduces the abundance of Candidatus Saccharimonas in a colitis-associated carcinogenesis model.

Bruna Cristina dos Santos Cruz, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Célia Lúcia de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Food Research International, v.137, p. 1-14.
Impact factor: 3.579

Abstract: Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease are at high risk of developing colitis-associated cancer; thus, strategies to inhibit disease progression should be investigated. The study aimed to explore the role of the synbiotic (probiotic VSL#3® and yacon-based concentrate) in a colitis-associated carcinogenesis model. IL-10−/− mice were induced to carcinogenesis with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and divided into two experimental groups: control and synbiotic. Manifestations of colitis, colon histology, expression of antioxidant enzymes, production of organic acids and intestinal microbiota were evaluated. The use of the synbiotic showed benefits, such as the preservation of intestinal architecture, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of organic acids, especially butyrate. It was also observed different microbial community profiles between the groups during the study. Together, these factors contributed to mitigate the manifestations of colitis and improve intestinal integrity, suggesting the potential benefit of the synbiotic in intestinal diseases.

Usefulness of the StrongKids Screening Tool in Detecting Anemia and Inflammation in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients.

Carolina Araújo dos Santos, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa Rosa, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Heloiza Helena Firmino, Andreia Queiroz Ribeiro
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, v. 2020, p. 1-9
Impact factor: 2.080

Abstract: Objective: To assess whether the nutritional risk classified by StrongKids is associated with anemia and inflammation (total leukocytes and C-reactive protein (CRP)), as well as to compare the ability of StrongKids with anthropometry in identifying these changes in hospitalized pediatric patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients admitted to the pediatric ward of a public hospital in Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. The experimental protocol included: nutritional risk screening by StrongKids; weight and height measurements; and biochemical tests (complete blood count and C-reactive protein – CRP). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated to assess the ability of StrongKids and anthropometry to identify patients with the biochemical changes. Results: The study included 482 patients (54.2% male), with a median age of 2.7 years. The frequency of nutritional risk (medium or high) was 85.9% and the prevalence of malnutrition (acute and/or chronic) was 20.2%. Overall, of the patients evaluated, 40.2% had anemia, 28.2% leukocytosis, and 78.0% high CRP. Children and adolescents classified as at nutritional risk (moderate/high) had lower levels of hemoglobin and higher levels of CRP and total leukocytes, as well as a higher frequency of leukocytosis, high CRP and the three alterations combined when compared with individuals at low risk. No association was found between anthropometric variables and biochemical alterations. The sensitivity of nutritional screening was high to detect all biochemical alterations and was superior to the anthropometric assessment. Conclusion: StrongKids was associated with alterations in biochemical parameters with a better performance than anthropometry.

Vitamin D and bone health in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

Kátia Josiany Segheto, Marcos Pereira Santos, Cristiane Junqueira de Carvalho, Felipe Ribeiro Massardi, Adriana Maria Kakehasi, Leidjaira Juvanhol Lopes, Giana Zarbato Longo
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, v. 25,
Impact factor: 1.008

Abstract: Low bone health is associated with vitamin D deficiency in older individuals; however, this association is not well established in adults. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone health in adults by systematic review and meta-analysis. The search was carried out in the LILACS, PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science, ScienceDirect databasesMarch 2017 to October 2018 with adult individuals (20-59 years). Bone health was evaluation performed through dual X-ray absorptiometry and serum concentrations of 25(OH)D. The random effect model were used to analyze databone mineral content and bone mineral. Random effects models were used and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by means of meta-regression. Thirty-five articles were ed. There was positive correlation between vitamin D and bone health in most of the evaluated sites. Correlation was observed in the analysis of subgroups for lumbar spine among men. When stratified, the studies presented high heterogeneity, which was explained by the sample size, mean serum vitamin D levels and risk of bias. Vitamin D is positively correlated to bone health in adult individuals.

Vitamin D is associated with the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in Brazilian children

Luana Cupertino Milagres, Mariana De Santis Filgueiras, Naruna Pereira Rocha, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Juliana Farias de Novaes
Journal of Public Health, v. 42, p. 1-8
Impact factor: 1.648

Abstract: Background Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is increasing and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has become a worldwide public health problem, even in tropical countries. Therefore, we identified the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP) and evaluate its relationship with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. Methods A cross-sectional study with 378 children aged 8 and 9 enrolled in all urban schools in the city of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), biochemical tests and clinical evaluation were performed. Poisson regression was used to analyze the association between vitamin D and HWP. Results Prevalence of HWP was 16.4%. This prevalence was higher among children with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and in those with a greater number of other cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple regression analysis showed that children with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency had, respectively, prevalence 85% (95% CI: 1.03–3.30) and 121% (95% CI: 1.11–4.45) higher of HWP than the vitamin D sufficiency group. Conclusion Vitamin D insuffiency and deficiency were associated with a higher prevalence of HWP among children, regardless of the presence of other cardiometabolic risk factors, indicating an additional risk of inadequate vitamin D status to cardiometabolic health in childhood.

Vitamin D status oxidative stress and inflammation in children and adolescents A systematic review

Mariana de Santis Filgueiras, Naruna Pereira Rocha, Juliana Farias de Novaes, Josefina Bressan
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, v. 60, p. 660 -690
Impact factor: 6.714

Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is considered a global public health problem with high prevalence in children and adolescents. The majority of the studies in the literature have identified a relationship between vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and obesity, as well as other traditional cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Scarce studies address vitamin D status with oxidative stress and inflammation in the young population. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence of the association of vitamin D status with oxidative stress and inflammation in children and adolescents. This is a systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guideline on reporting systematic reviews. Eight studies were selected for this review. All included studies evaluated inflammatory biomarkers and two out of eight evaluated biomarkers of oxidative stress. The majority of the studies (five out of eight) found association of vitamin D status with biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), cathepsin S, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase, 3-nitrotyrosine, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Vitamin D status is associated with oxidative stress and inflammation in the majority of the studies with children and adolescents. Thus, the assessment of vitamin D status is important because it is associated with nontraditional cardiometabolic markers in the pediatric population

Walkability and healthy aging: an analytical proposal for small and medium-sized Brazilian cities

Aline Siqueira Fogal Veggui, Elpidio Inácio Fernades Filho, Milene Critine Pessoa, Karla Lisboa Ramos, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro
Cadernos de Saúde Pública, v 36, p.1-15
Impact factor: 1.170

Abstract: Evidence has shown that urban environments that discourage walking contribute to functional incapacity in the elderly. Various indices have been proposed to describe an area’s walkability, combining different aspects of the built environment that promote (or inhibit) walking. However, due to problems with the quality and availability of data in Brazil, there is no walkability index to date applies to all cities of the country and that has been properly tested in the population. The current study aimed to propose a walkability index based on geographic information systems for a medium-sized city, with open-access data, and to test its association with functional incapacity in the elderly. The study used data from the urban area of a medium-sized Brazilian city to select a parsimonious set of variables through factor analysis. The resulting index was tested for its association with the capacity to perform activities of daily living that require more movement, in 499 elderly, using generalized estimating equations. The resulting walkability index consists of residential density, commercial density, street connectivity, presence of sidewalks, and public lighting. These variables comprised the first factor in the factor analysis, excluding only arborization which was retained in the second factor. The worst walkability score was associated with the highest functional incapacity score. Based on the results and their validation, the study suggests an easily applicable walkability index with great potential for use in action plans to adapt environments.

Weight Loss After RYGB Is Associated with an Increase in Serum Vitamin D in a Population with Low Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D at Low Latitude.

Sônia Lopes Pinto, Leidjaira Lopes Juvanhol, Josefina Bressan
Obesity Surgery, v. 30, p. 1 -8
Impact factor: 3.603

Abstract: Abstract: Purpose In Brazil and worldwide, few studies have investigated vitamin D deficiency in patients with severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery associated with latitude and level of solar radiation. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the predictive factors of serum level changes after 12 months of RYGB in a low latitude region. Materials and Methods This study included 50 patients from a low-latitude city (10° 10′ 8″ S) in the north of Brazil. We collected data before surgery and after 3 and 12 months of surgery. The level of vitamin D was classified as deficiency (< 20 ng/ml), insufficiency (20–30 ng/ml), and sufficiency (≥ 30 ng/ml). Results The mean age of the patients was 38.7 ± 8.9 years, 69% were women, and percent excess weight loss (% EWL) was 83% after 1 year of surgery. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the preoperative period was 14%, and after 3 and 12 months of surgery, it decreased to 4% and 6%, respectively. The variation in vitamin D after 12 months of surgery was positively associated with changes in BMI, body fat, and % EWL. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is low in patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the northern region of Brazil, which is possibly related to low latitude. Weight loss was positively associated with an increase in serum vitamin D after surgery

Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) flour soluble extract improve intestinal bacterial populations, brush border membrane functionality and morphology in vivo (Gallus gallus).

Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Nikolai Kolba, Ellad Tako
Food Research International, v. 137p.109705
Impact factor 3.579

Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of intra-amniotic administration of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) flour soluble extracts (YFSE) on intestinal bacterial populations, brush border membrane (BBM) functionality and morphology, by using the Gallus gallus model. The YFSE increased (p < 0.05) relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and E. coli compared to 18MΩ H2O. The YFSE had systematic effect on BBM functionality, via the upregulation of zinc (zinc transporters – ZnT1, ZnT7 and ZIP9) and iron (ferroportin, Duodenal cytochrome (DcytB) transporters, sucrose isomaltase (SI), and down regulation of Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), and hepcidin genes expression when compared to the inulin administered group. The YFSE administration increased glycogen concentrations in pectoral muscle compared to noninjected and 18 Ω H2O groups, however, did not change gene expression of enzymes related to glycolysis (phosphofructokinase) and gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase). The YFSE increased the depth of crypts, crypt goblet cell diameter, number and type (acidic), and villi goblet cell diameter and type (acidic) when compared to all other groups. Thus, YFSE demonstrated prebiotic effects resulting in improving intestinal bacterial populations profile, BBM functionality, digestive and absorptive capabilities, intestinal morphology, glycogen status and immune system.

Yacon (Smallanthus Sonchifolius)-Based Product Increases Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acids Concentration and Up-Regulates T-Bet Expression in the Colon of BALB/c Mice During Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

Letícia De Nadai Marcon, Luís Fernando de Sousa Moraes, Bruna Cristina dos Santos Cruz, Michelle Dias de Oliveira Teixeira, Antônio Frederico de Freitas Gomides, Célia Lúcia de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Leandro Licursi de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
HSOA Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, , v. 3, p. 1 -13
H index: 20

Abstract: Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the third most diagnosed type of cancer worldwide. Prebiotics containing Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin have been reported to improve CRC in experimental models. We hypothesized whether consumption of the yaconbased product (PBY-Smallanthus sonchifolius concentrate), as a source of FOS and inulin, could mitigate colonic pre-neoplastic lesion development in mice by enhancing fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) production besides modulating intestinal immune responses. Therefore, we investigate the effects of PBY consumption on anatomical and fecal characteristics, serum biomarkers, fecal SCFA concentration, intestinal lymphocytes population, expression of transcription factors of the adaptive immune response and Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) count in the colon of mice chemically induced to pre-neoplastic lesions. Male BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (20mg/kg body weight/week) for 8 weeks. Thereafter, mice were fed either control (AIN-93M) or PBY diet (AIN-93M supplemented with PBY, 6.0% FOS +Inulin) for 8 weeks and then euthanized. PBY was not successful in reducing ACF counts; however, it improved fecal SCFA concentration (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric), reduced fecal pH and increased humidity and viscosity of feces. Although there were no significant changes in the intestinal lymphocytes population (CD4, CD8, Natural Killer, Treg and Th17), PBY consumption modulates the immune response in the colon reducing the expression of FOXP3 and increasing RORγt and T-bet, which would contribute to activation and proliferation of CD8 T lymphocytes and better CRC prognosis. Therefore, we suggest that PBY might improve intestinal health during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, especially by modulating SCFA production and colonic adaptive immune response

β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation benefits the effects of resistance training on body fat reduction via increased irisin expression in white adipose tissue.

Juliano Magalhães Guedes, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, John A. Rathmacher, Tiago F. Leal, Miguel Araújo Carneiro Júnior, Diego M. de Carvalho, Leandro L. de Oliveira, Antônio José Natali
Biology of Sports, v.38, p.113-121.
Impact factor: 2.202

Abstract: The effects of resistance training (RT) associated with calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) supplementation on the body composition and gene expression of cytokines related to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and adipose tissue metabolism were studied in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals: sedentary control (SC); sedentary supplemented (SS); resistance training control (RTC) and resistance training supplemented (RTS). Rats from RTC and RTS groups were submitted to an RT programme and those from SS and RTS groups received 1 mL of CaHMB (320 mg kg-1 day-1) by gavage, for 8 weeks. We evaluated: body composition; plasma lipid profile; the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-15 and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC-5) in skeletal muscle, and IL-6, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in white adipose tissue (WAT); and the concentration of irisin in WAT. Compared to RTC alone, the combination of CaHMB with RT (RTS) further reduced abdominal circumference (5.3%), Lee index (2.4%), fat percentage (24.4%), plasma VLDL cholesterol (16.8%) and triglycerides (17%) and increased the gene expression of FNDC-5 (78.9%) and IL-6 (47.4%) in skeletal muscle and irisin concentration (26.9%) in WAT. Neither RT nor CaHMB affected the protein percentage or the gene expression of IL-6 and UCP-1 in WAT and IL-10, IL-15 in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, CaHMB supplementation increased the beneficial effects of RT on body fat reduction and was associated with muscular genic expression of IL-6 and FNDC-5 and irisin concentration in WAT, despite the lack of change in protein mass and maximal strength.


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